How many programming languages are there 2018?


2 Jun 2018


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The aim of this list of programming languages is to include all notable programming languages in existence, both those in current use and historical ones, in alphabetical order.

The official websites if available are linked to the names of the programming language and if no official websites are present then it will be linked to the wikipedia article.



Jump using '#' at the end of the url eg: #python
Use only lower case.



1: A# .NET

A# is a port of the Ada programming language to the Microsoft .NET platform. A# is freely distributed by the Department of Computer Science at the United States Air Force Academy as a service to the Ada community under the terms of the GNU General Public License. wiki.



2: A# (Axiom)

A (pronounced: A sharp) is an object-oriented functional programming language distributed as a separable component of Version 2 of the Axiom computer algebra system. A# types and functions are first-class values and can be used freely together with an extensive library of data structures and other mathematical abstractions. A key design guideline for A# was suitability of compiling to portable and efficient machine code. It is distributed as free and open-source software under a BSD-like license.[1] wiki.



3: A-0 System

The A-0 system (Arithmetic Language version 0), written by Richard K. Ridgway [1] (managed by Grace Hopper) in 1951 and 1952 for the UNIVAC I, was an early[2] compiler related tool developed for electronic computers.[3] The A-0 functioned more as a loader or linker than the modern notion of a compiler. A program was specified as a sequence of subroutines and arguments. The subroutines were identified by a numeric code and the arguments to the subroutines were written directly after each subroutine code. The A-0 system converted the specification into machine code that could be fed into the computer a second time to execute the said program. wiki.



4: A+

A+ is an array programming language descendent from the programming language A, which in turn was created to replace APL in 1988.[1] Arthur Whitney developed the A portion of A+, while other developers at Morgan Stanley extended it, adding a graphical user interface and other language features. A+ is a high-level, interactive, interpreted language, designed for numerically intensive applications, especially those found in financial applications. A+ runs on many Unix variants, including Linux. It is free and open source software released under a GNU General Public License. wiki.



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5: A++

A++ stands for abstraction plus reference plus synthesis which is used as a name for the minimalistic programming language that is built on ARS. ARS is an abstraction from the Lambda Calculus, taking its three basic operations, and giving them a more general meaning, thus providing a foundation for the three major programming paradigms: functional programming, object-oriented programming and imperative programming. wiki.



6: ABAP

ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming, originally Allgemeiner Berichts-Aufbereitungs-Prozessor, German for "general report creation processor"[1]) is a high-level programming language created by the German software company SAP SE. It is currently positioned, alongside Java, as the language for programming the SAP Application Server, which is part of the NetWeaver platform for building business applications. wiki.



7: ABC

ABC is an imperative general-purpose programming language and programming environment developed at CWI, Netherlands by Leo Geurts, Lambert Meertens, and Steven Pemberton. It is interactive, structured, high-level, and intended to be used instead of BASIC, Pascal, or AWK. It is not meant to be a systems-programming language but is intended for teaching or prototyping. wiki.



8: ABC ALGOL

ABC ALGOL is an extension of the Algol 60 programming language with arbitrary data structures and user-defined operators, targeted for symbolic mathematics. Despite its advances, it was never used as widely as Algol proper. wiki.



9: ABSET

ABSET was an early declarative programming language from the University of Aberdeen. wiki.



10: ABSYS

Absys was an early declarative programming language from the University of Aberdeen.[1] It anticipated a number of features of Prolog such as negation as failure, aggregation operators, the central role of backtracking[2] and constraint solving.[1] Absys was the first implementation of a logic programming language.[1] wiki.



11: ACC

ACC is a near-C compiler for the MS-DOS operating system on the IBM PC line of computers for programs. The compiler and compiled programs will run on any Intel 80386 or above PC running MS-DOS. Included with the compiler are a 386 assembler and a linker for combining multiple object files. There are also two libraries, which are a protected mode DOS extender (based on Thomas Pytel's, AKA Tran's PMODE30B + PMODE307 DOS extenders), and a library of functions callable by C programs. wiki.



12: Accent

Rational Synergy is a software tool that provides software configuration management (SCM) capabilities for all artifacts related to software development including source code, documents and images as well as the final built software executable and libraries. Rational Synergy also provides the repository for the change management tool known as Rational Change. Together these two tools form an integrated configuration management and change management environment that is used in software development organizations that need controlled SCM processes and an understanding of what is in a build of their software. wiki.



13: Ace DASL (Distributed Application Specification Language)

The DASL Programming Language (Distributed Application Specification Language) is a high-level, strongly typed programming language originally developed at Sun Microsystems Laboratories between 1999 and 2003 as part of the Ace Project. The goals of the project were to enable rapid development of web-based applications based on Sun's J2EE architecture, and to eliminate the steep learning curve of platform-specific details. wiki.



14: ACL2

ACL2 (A Computational Logic for Applicative Common Lisp) is a software system consisting of a programming language, an extensible theory in a first-order logic, and a mechanical theorem prover. ACL2 is designed to support automated reasoning in inductive logical theories, mostly for the purpose of software and hardware verification. The input language and implementation of ACL2 are built on Common Lisp. ACL2 is free, open source (BSD license) software. wiki.



15: ACT-III

The LGP-30, standing for Librascope General Purpose and then Librascope General Precision, was an early off-the-shelf computer. It was manufactured by the Librascope company of Glendale, California (a division of General Precision Inc.), and sold and serviced by the Royal Precision Electronic Computer Company, a joint venture with the Royal McBee division of the Royal Typewriter Company. The LGP-30 was first manufactured in 1956[1][2][3] with a retail price of $47,000equivalent to about $423,000 today.[4] wiki.



16: Action!

Action! is a procedural programming language similar to ALGOL 68 that is intended to produce high-performance programs for the Atari 8-bit family. The language was written by Clinton Parker and distributed on ROM cartridge by Optimized Systems Software starting in 1983. wiki.



17: ActionScript

ActionScript is an object-oriented programming language originally developed by Macromedia Inc. (later acquired by Adobe Systems). It is a derivation of HyperTalk, the scripting language for HyperCard.[2] It is now a dialect of ECMAScript (meaning it is a superset of the syntax and semantics of the language more widely known as JavaScript), though it originally arose as a sibling, both being influenced by HyperTalk. wiki.



18: Ada

Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, wide-spectrum, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages. It has built-in language support for design-by-contract, extremely strong typing, explicit concurrency, tasks, synchronous message passing, protected objects, and non-determinism. Ada improves code safety and maintainability by using the compiler to find errors in favor of runtime errors. Ada is an international standard; the current version (known as Ada 2012[6]) is defined by ISO/IEC 8652:2012.[7] wiki.



19: Adenine

Haystack was[citation needed] a project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to research and develop several applications around personal information management and the Semantic Web. The most notable of those applications is the Haystack client, a research personal information manager (PIM) and one of the first to be based on semantic desktop technologies. The Haystack client is published as open source software under the BSD license. wiki.



20: Agda

Agda is a dependently typed functional programming language originally developed by Ulf Norell at Chalmers University of Technology with implementation described in his PhD thesis.[2] The current version of Agda was originally known as Agda 2. The original Agda system was developed at Chalmers by Catarina Coquand in 1999.[3] The current version is a full rewrite, which should be considered a new language that shares name and tradition. wiki.



21: Agilent VEE

Keysight VEE is a graphical dataflow programming software development environment from Keysight Technologies for automated test, measurement, data analysis and reporting. VEE originally stood for Visual Engineering Environment and developed by HP designated as HP VEE; it has since been officially renamed to Keysight VEE. Keysight VEE has been widely used in various industries, serving the entire stage of a product lifecycle, from design, validation to manufacturing. It is optimized in instrument control and automation with test and measurement devices such as data acquisition instruments like digital voltmeters and oscilloscopes, and source devices like signal generators and programmable power supplies. wiki.



22: Agora

Agora is a reflective, prototype-based, object-oriented programming language that is based exclusively on message passing and not delegation. Agora was intended to show that even subject to that limit, it is possible to build a full object-oriented language that features inheritance, cloning and reflective operators. wiki.



23: AIMMS

AIMMS is a prescriptive analytics software company with offices in the Netherlands, United States, China and Singapore. AIMMS has two main product offerings that provide modeling and optimization capabilities across a variety of industries. The AIMMS Prescriptive Analytics Platform is a tool for those with an Operations Research or Analytics background. It offers unlimited flexibility to develop optimization-based applications and deploy them to business users. AIMMS SC Navigator, launched in 2017, is built on the AIMMS Prescriptive Analytics Platform and provides configurable Apps for supply chain teams. SC Navigator provides supply chain analytics to individuals without a technical or analytics background so they can get the same benefits from sophisticated analytics without needing to code or model. wiki.



24: Aldor

Aldor is a programming language. It is the successor of A# as the extension language of the Axiom computer algebra system. wiki.



25: Alef

Alef is a discontinued concurrent programming language, designed as part of the Plan 9 operating system by Phil Winterbottom of Bell Labs. It implemented the channel-based concurrency model of Newsqueak in a compiled, C-like language. wiki.



26: ALF

Algebraic Logic Functional programming language, also known as ALF, is a programming language which combines functional and logic programming techniques. Its foundation is Horn clause logic with equality which consists of predicates and Horn clauses for logic programming, and functions and equations for functional programming. wiki.



27: ALGOL 58

ALGOL 58, originally known as IAL, is one of the family of ALGOL computer programming languages. It was an early compromise design soon superseded by ALGOL 60. According to John Backus[2] wiki.



28: ALGOL 60

ALGOL 60 (short for Algorithmic Language 1960) is a member of the ALGOL family of computer programming languages. It followed on from ALGOL 58 which had introduced code blocks and the begin and end pairs for delimiting them. ALGOL 60 was the first language implementing nested function definitions with lexical scope. It gave rise to many other programming languages, including CPL, Simula, BCPL, B, Pascal and C. wiki.



29: ALGOL 68

ALGOL 68 (short for Algorithmic Language 1968) is an imperative computer programming language that was conceived as a successor to the ALGOL 60 programming language, designed with the goal of a much wider scope of application and more rigorously defined syntax and semantics. wiki.



30: ALGOL W

ALGOL W is a programming language. It is based on a proposal for ALGOL X by Niklaus Wirth and Tony Hoare as a successor to ALGOL 60 in IFIP Working Group 2.1. When the committee decided that the proposal was not a sufficient advance over ALGOL 60, the proposal was published as A contribution to the development of ALGOL.[1] After making small modifications to the language[2] Wirth supervised a high quality implementation for the IBM/360 at Stanford University that was widely distributed.[3] wiki.



31: Alice

Alice ML is a programming language designed by the Programming Systems Laboratory[2] at Saarland University, Saarbrcken, Germany. It is a dialect of Standard ML, augmented with support for lazy evaluation, concurrency (multithreading and distributed computing via remote procedure calls) and constraint programming. wiki.



32: Alma-0

Alma-0 is a multi-paradigm computer programming language. This language is an augmented version of the imperative Modula-2 language with logic-programming features and convenient backtracking capability.[1] It is small, strongly typed, and combines constraint programming, a limited number of features inspired by logic programming and supports imperative paradigms. The language advocates declarative programming. The designers claim that search-oriented solutions built with it are substantially simpler than their counterparts written in purely imperative or logic programming style.[citation needed] [1] Alma-0 provides natural, high-level constructs for the construction of search trees.[2] wiki.



33: AmbientTalk

AmbientTalk is an experimental object-oriented distributed programming language developed at the Programming Technology Laboratory at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium. The language is primarily targeted at writing programs deployed in mobile ad hoc networks. wiki.



34: Amiga E

Amiga E, or very often simply E, is a programming language created by Wouter van Oortmerssen on the Amiga. He has since moved on to develop the SHEEP programming language for the new AmigaDE platform and the CryScript language (also known as DOG) used during the development of the video game Far Cry. wiki.



35: AMOS

AMOS BASIC is a dialect of the BASIC programming language implemented on the Amiga computer. AMOS BASIC was published by Europress Software and originally written by Franois Lionet with Constantin Sotiropoulos. wiki.



36: AMPL

A Mathematical Programming Language (AMPL) is an algebraic modeling language to describe and solve high-complexity problems for large-scale mathematical computing (i.e., large-scale optimization and scheduling-type problems).[1] It was developed by Robert Fourer, David Gay, and Brian Kernighan at Bell Laboratories. AMPL supports dozens of solvers, both open source and commercial software, including CBC, CPLEX, FortMP, Gurobi, MINOS, IPOPT, SNOPT, KNITRO, and LGO. Problems are passed to solvers as nl files. AMPL is used by more than 100 corporate clients, and by government agencies and academic institutions.[2] wiki.



37: AngelScript

AngelScript is a game-oriented interpreted compiled scripting language. wiki.



38: Apex

Salesforce.com, Inc. (styled in its logo as salesorce; abbreviated usually as SF or SFDC) is an American cloud computing company headquartered in San Francisco, California. Though its revenue comes from a customer relationship management (CRM) product, Salesforce also sells commercial applications of social networking through acquisition and internal development. wiki.



39: APL

APL (named after the book A Programming Language)[2] is a programming language developed in the 1960s by Kenneth E. Iverson. Its central datatype is the multidimensional array. It uses a large range of special graphic symbols[3] to represent most functions and operators, leading to very concise code. It has been an important influence on the development of concept modeling, spreadsheets, functional programming,[4] and computer math packages.[5] It has also inspired several other programming languages.[6][7] wiki.



40: App Inventor for Android's visual block language

App Inventor for Android is an open-source web application originally provided by Google, and now maintained by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). wiki.



41: AppleScript

AppleScript is a scripting language created by Apple Inc. that facilitates automated control over scriptable Mac applications. First introduced in System 7, it is currently included in all versions of macOS as part of a package of system automation tools.[2][3] The term "AppleScript" may refer to the language itself, to an individual script written in the language, or, informally, to the macOS Open Scripting Architecture that underlies the language.[2][3] wiki.



42: APT

APT or Automatically Programmed Tool[1] is a high-level computer programming language most commonly used to generate instructions for numerically controlled machine tools. Douglas T. Ross[2] is considered by many to be the father of APT: as head of the newly created Computer Applications Group of the Servomechanisms Laboratory at MIT in 1956, he led its technical effort. APT is a language and system that makes numerically controlled manufacturing possible. This early language was used widely into the 1970s and is still a standard internationally.[3] Derivatives of APT were later developed. wiki.



43: Arc

Arc is a dialect of the Lisp programming language developed by Paul Graham and Robert Morris. wiki.



44: ARexx

ARexx is an implementation of the REXX language for the Amiga, written in 1987 by William S. Hawes, with a number of Amiga-specific features beyond standard REXX facilities. Like most REXX implementations, ARexx is an interpreted language. Programs written for ARexx are called "scripts", or "macros"; several programs offer the ability to run ARexx scripts in their main interface as macros. wiki.



45: Argus

Argus is a programming language created at MIT by Barbara Liskov between 1982 and 1988, in collaboration with Maurice Herlihy, Paul Johnson, Robert Scheifler, and William Weihl.[1] It is an extension of the CLU language, and utilizes most of the same syntax and semantics.[1] Argus was designed to support the creation of distributed programs, by encapsulating related procedures within objects called guardians, and by supporting atomic operations called actions.[1][2] wiki.



46: AspectJ

AspectJ is an aspect-oriented programming (AOP) extension created at PARC for the Java programming language. It is available in Eclipse Foundation open-source projects, both stand-alone and integrated into Eclipse. AspectJ has become a widely used de facto standard for AOP by emphasizing simplicity and usability for end users. It uses Java-like syntax, and included IDE integrations for displaying crosscutting structure since its initial public release in 2001. wiki.



47: Assembly language

An assembly (or assembler) language,[1] often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the language and the architecture's machine code instructions. Each assembly language is specific to a particular computer architecture. In contrast, most high-level programming languages are generally portable across multiple architectures but require interpreting or compiling. Assembly language may also be called symbolic machine code.[2] wiki.



48: ATS

ATS (Applied Type System) is a programming language designed to unify programming with formal specification. ATS has support for combining theorem proving with practical programming through the use of advanced type systems.[1] A past version of The Computer Language Benchmarks Game has demonstrated that the performance of ATS is comparable to that of the C and C++ programming languages.[2] By using theorem proving and strict type checking, the compiler can detect and prove that its implemented functions are not susceptible to bugs such as division by zero, memory leaks, buffer overflow, and other forms of memory corruption by verifying pointer arithmetic and reference counting before the program compiles. Additionally, by using the integrated theorem-proving system of ATS (ATS/LF), the programmer may make use of static constructs that are intertwined with the operative code to prove that a function attains its specification. wiki.



49: Ateji PX

Ateji PX is an object-oriented programming language extension for Java. It is intended to facilliate parallel computing on multi-core processors, GPU, Grid and Cloud. wiki.



50: AutoHotkey

AutoHotkey is a free, open-source custom scripting language for Microsoft Windows, initially aimed at providing easy keyboard shortcuts or hotkeys, fast macro-creation and software automation that allows users of most levels of computer skill to automate repetitive tasks in any Windows application. User interfaces can easily be extended or modified by AutoHotkey (for example, overriding the default Windows control key commands with their Emacs equivalents).[3] The AutoHotkey installation includes its own extensive help file, and web-based documentation is also available.[4] wiki.



51: Autocoder

Autocoder was the name given to certain assemblers for a number of IBM computers of the 1950s and 1960s. The first Autocoders appear to have been the earliest assemblers to provide a macro facility.[1] wiki.



52: AutoIt

AutoIt /to t/[2] is a freeware automation language for Microsoft Windows. In its earliest release, the software was primarily intended to create automation scripts (sometimes called macros) for Microsoft Windows programs[3] but has since grown to include enhancements in both programming language design and overall functionality. wiki.



53: AutoLISP / Visual LISP

AutoLISP is a dialect of the LISP programming language built specifically for use with the full version of AutoCAD and its derivatives, which include AutoCAD Map 3D, AutoCAD Architecture and AutoCAD Mechanical.[1] Neither the application programming interface nor the interpreter to execute AutoLISP code are included in the AutoCAD LT product line.[2] wiki.



54: Averest

Averest is a synchronous programming language and set of tools to specify, verify, and implement reactive systems. It includes a compiler for synchronous programs, a symbolic model checker, and a tool for hardware/software synthesis. wiki.



55: AWK

AWK is a programming language designed for text processing and typically used as a data extraction and reporting tool. It is a standard feature of most Unix-like operating systems. wiki.



56: Axum

Axum (previously codenamed Maestro) is a domain-specific concurrent programming language, based on the Actor model, that was under active development by Microsoft[1] between 2009 and 2011.[2] It is an object-oriented language based on the .NET Common Language Runtime using a C-like syntax which, being a domain-specific language, is intended for development of portions of a software application that is well-suited to concurrency. But it contains enough general-purpose constructs that one need not switch to a general-purpose programming language (like C#) for the sequential parts of the concurrent components.[1] wiki.



57: Active Server Pages

Active Server Pages (ASP), later known as Classic ASP or ASP Classic, is Microsoft's first server-side script engine for dynamically generated web pages. wiki.



58: B

B is a programming language developed at Bell Labs circa 1969. It is the work of Ken Thompson with Dennis Ritchie. wiki.



59: Babbage

Babbage is the high level assembly language for the GEC 4000 series minicomputers.[1] It was named after Charles Babbage, an English computing pioneer. wiki.



60: Bash

Bash is a Unix shell and command language written by Brian Fox for the GNU Project as a free software replacement for the Bourne shell.[7][8] First released in 1989,[9] it has been distributed widely as the default login shell for most Linux distributions and Apple's macOS (formerly OS X). A version is also available for Windows 10.[10] wiki.



61: BASIC

BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code)[2] is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use. In 1964, John G. Kemeny, Thomas E. Kurtz and Mary Kenneth Keller designed the original BASIC language at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire, United States. They wanted to enable students in fields other than science and mathematics to use computers. At the time, nearly all use of computers required writing custom software, which was something only scientists and mathematicians tended to learn. wiki.



62: bc

bc, for basic calculator (often referred to as bench calculator), is "an arbitrary-precision calculator language" with syntax similar to the C programming language. bc is typically used as either a mathematical scripting language or as an interactive mathematical shell. wiki.



63: BCPL

BCPL ("Basic Combined Programming Language"; or 'Before C Programming Language' (a common humorous backronym)[3]) is a procedural, imperative, and structured computer programming language. Originally intended for writing compilers for other languages, BCPL is no longer in common use. However, its influence is still felt because a stripped down and syntactically changed version of BCPL, called B, was the language on which the C programming language was based. BCPL introduced several features of modern programming languages, including using curly braces to delimit code blocks; compilation via virtual machine byte code; and the world's first 'hello world' demonstrator program. wiki.



64: BeanShell

BeanShell is a Java-like scripting language, invented by Patrick Niemeyer. It runs in the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) and uses a variation of the Java syntax, in addition to scripting commands and syntax. wiki.



65: Batch (Windows/Dos)

A batch file is a kind of script file in DOS, OS/2 and Microsoft Windows. It consists of a series of commands to be executed by the command-line interpreter, stored in a plain text file. A batch file may contain any command the interpreter accepts interactively and use constructs that enable conditional branching and looping within the batch file, such as IF, FOR, and GOTO labels. The term "batch" is from batch processing, meaning "non-interactive execution", though a batch file may not process a batch of multiple data. wiki.



66: Bertrand

Bertrand (named after Bertrand Russell) is a computer programming language for creating constraint programming systems. The language was created by Wm Leler in the mid-1980s as part of his doctoral research. Bertrand has a declarative programming syntax and differentiates itself from other programming languages by use of a technique called augmented term rewriting. wiki.



67: BETA

BETA is a pure object-oriented language originating within the "Scandinavian School" in object-orientation where the first object-oriented language Simula was developed.[1] Among its notable features, it introduced nested classes, and unified classes with procedures into so called patterns. wiki.



68: Bistro

Bistro is a programming language designed and developed by Nikolas Boyd. It is intended to integrate features of Smalltalk and Java. Bistro Smalltalk runs atop any Java virtual machine conforming to Sun Microsystems' Java specification. wiki.



69: BLISS

BLISS is a system programming language developed at Carnegie Mellon University by W. A. Wulf, D. B. Russell, and A. N. Habermann around 1970. It was perhaps the best known systems programming language right up until C made its debut a few years later. Since then, C took off and BLISS faded into obscurity. When C was in its infancy, a few projects within Bell Labs were debating the merits of BLISS vs. C[citation needed]. wiki.



70: Blockly

Blockly is a client-side JavaScript library for creating visual block programming languages and editors. It is a project of Google and is open-source under the Apache 2.0 License.[1] It typically runs in a web browser, and visually resembles Scratch. Blockly is also being implemented for Android and iOS; not all web browser based features are available for Android/iOS. wiki.



71: BlooP

BlooP and FlooP are simple programming languages designed by Douglas Hofstadter to illustrate a point in his book Gdel, Escher, Bach.[1] BlooP is a non-Turing-complete programming language whose main control flow structure is a bounded loop (i.e. recursion is not permitted). All programs in the language must terminate, and this language can only express primitive recursive functions.[2] wiki.



72: Boo

Boo is an object-oriented, statically typed, general-purpose programming language that seeks to make use of the Common Language Infrastructure's support for Unicode, internationalization, and web applications, while using a Python-inspired syntax[2] and a special focus on language and compiler extensibility. Some features of note include type inference, generators, multimethods, optional duck typing, macros, true closures, currying, and first-class functions. wiki.



73: Boomerang

Boomerang is a programming language for writing lenseswell-behaved bidirectional transformations that operate on ad-hoc, textual data formats. wiki.



74: Bourne shell

The Bourne shell (sh) is a shell, or command-line interpreter, for computer operating systems. wiki.



75: bash

Bash is a Unix shell and command language written by Brian Fox for the GNU Project as a free software replacement for the Bourne shell.[7][8] First released in 1989,[9] it has been distributed widely as the default login shell for most Linux distributions and Apple's macOS (formerly OS X). A version is also available for Windows 10.[10] wiki.



76: ksh

KornShell (ksh) is a Unix shell which was developed by David Korn at Bell Labs in the early 1980s and announced at USENIX on July 14, 1983.[1][2] The initial development was based on Bourne shell source code.[7] Other early contributors were Bell Labs developers Mike Veach and Pat Sullivan, who wrote the Emacs and vi-style line editing modes' code, respectively.[8] KornShell is backward-compatible with the Bourne shell and includes many features of the C shell, inspired by the requests of Bell Labs users. wiki.



77: BPEL

The Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL), commonly known as BPEL (Business Process Execution Language), is an OASIS[1] standard executable language for specifying actions within business processes with web services. Processes in BPEL export and import information by using web service interfaces exclusively. wiki.



78: Business Basic

Business Basic is a category of variants of the BASIC computer programming language which were specialised for business use on minicomputers in the 1970s and 1980s. Business Basics added indexed file access methods to the normal set of BASIC commands, and were optimised for other input/output access, especially display terminal control. The two major families of Business Basic are MAI Basic Four and Data General Business Basic. In addition the Point 4 company, which developed the IRIS operating system, had their own version of BASIC. The UniBASIC owned by Dynamic Concepts of Irvine is a derivative of the Point 4 BASIC. wiki.



79: C

C (/si/, as in the letter c) is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations. By design, C provides constructs that map efficiently to typical machine instructions, and therefore it has found lasting use in applications that had formerly been coded in assembly language, including operating systems, as well as various application software for computers ranging from supercomputers to embedded systems. wiki.



80: C--

C-- (pronounced cee minus minus) is a C-like programming language. Its creators, functional programming researchers Simon Peyton Jones and Norman Ramsey, designed it to be generated mainly by compilers for very high-level languages rather than written by human programmers. Unlike many other intermediate languages, its representation is plain ASCII text, not bytecode or another binary format. wiki.



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81: C++

C++ (/siplspls/ "see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language. It has imperative, object-oriented and generic programming features, while also providing facilities for low-level memory manipulation. wiki.



82: C#

C#[b] (/si: rp/) is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines. It was developed by Microsoft within its .NET initiative and later approved as a standard by Ecma (ECMA-334) and ISO (ISO/IEC 23270:2006). C# is one of the programming languages designed for the Common Language Infrastructure. wiki.



83: C/AL

C/AL (Client/server Application Language) is the programming language used within C/SIDE the Client/Server Integrated Development Environment in Microsoft Dynamics NAV (Formerly known as Navision Attain). C/AL is a Database specific programming language, and is primarily used for retrieving, inserting and modifying records in a Navision database. C/AL resembles the Pascal language on which it is based. The original C/AL compiler was written by Michael Nielsen.[1] wiki.



84: Cach ObjectScript

Cach ObjectScript is a part of the Cach database system sold by InterSystems. The language is a functional superset of the ANSI-standard MUMPS programming language. Since Cach is at its core a MUMPS implementation, it can run ANSI MUMPS routines with no change. To appeal as a commercial product, Cach implements support for object-oriented programming, a macro preprocessing language, embedded SQL for ANSI-standard SQL access to M's built-in database, procedure and control blocks using C-like brace syntax, procedure-scoped variables, and relaxed whitespace syntax limitations. wiki.



85: C Shell (csh)

The C shell (csh or the improved version, tcsh) is a Unix shell created by Bill Joy while he was a graduate student at University of California, Berkeley in the late 1970s. It has been widely distributed, beginning with the 2BSD release of the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) that Joy began distributing in 1978.[2][3] Other early contributors to the ideas or the code were Michael Ubell, Eric Allman, Mike O'Brien and Jim Kulp.[4] wiki.



86: Caml

Caml (originally an acronym for Categorical abstract machine language) is a multi-paradigm, general-purpose programming language which is a dialect of the ML programming language family. Caml was developed in France at INRIA and ENS. wiki.



87: Cayenne

Cayenne is a dependently typed functional programming language created by Lennart Augustsson in 1998,[1] making it one of the earliest dependently type programming language (as opposed to proof assistant or logical framework). A notable design decision is that the language allows unbounded recursive functions to be used on the type level, making type checking undecidable.[2] Most dependently typed proof assistants and later dependently typed languages such as Agda included a termination checker to prevent the type checker from looping, while the contemporary Dependent ML restricted the expressivity of the type-level language to maintain decidability. wiki.



88: CDuce

CDuce is an XML-oriented functional language, which extends XDuce in a few directions. It features XML regular expression types, XML regular expression patterns, XML iterators. CDuce is not strictly speaking an XML transformation language since it can be used for general-purpose programming. wiki.



89: Cecil

Cecil is a pure object-oriented programming language that was developed by Craig Chambers at the University of Washington in 1992 to be part of the Vortex project there. Cecil has many similarities to other object-oriented languages, most notably Objective-C, Modula-3, and Self.[1][2] The main goals of the project were extensibility, orthogonality, efficiency, and ease-of-use. wiki.



90: Cesil

Cesil, or Computer Education in Schools Instruction Language, was a programming language designed to introduce pupils in British schools to Assembly language. It is a low level language containing a total of fourteen instructions: wiki.



91: Cu

Cu is "Structured Synchronous Reactive Programming" [1] According to its web page, Cu supports synchronous concurrency with shared memory and deterministic execution and has a small memory footprint.[1] wiki.



92: Ceylon

Ceylon is an object-oriented, strongly statically typed programming language with an emphasis on immutability, created by Red Hat. Ceylon programs run on the Java virtual machine (JVM), and can be compiled to JavaScript.[5][6] The language design focuses on source code readability, predictability, toolability, modularity, and metaprogrammability.[7] wiki.



93: CFEngine

CFEngine is an open source configuration management system, written by Mark Burgess. Its primary function is to provide automated configuration and maintenance of large-scale computer systems, including the unified management of servers, desktops, consumer and industrial devices, embedded networked devices, mobile smartphones, and tablet computers. wiki.



94: Cg

Cg (short for C for Graphics[1]) is a high-level shading language developed by Nvidia in close collaboration with Microsoft for programming vertex and pixel shaders. Cg is based on the C programming language and although they share the same syntax, some features of C were modified and new data types were added to make Cg more suitable for programming graphics processing units. This language is only suitable for GPU programming and is not a general programming language. The Cg compiler outputs DirectX or OpenGL shader programs. Since 2012, Cg was deprecated, with no additional development or support available.[2] wiki.



95: Ch

Ch /siet/ is a proprietary cross-platform C and C++ interpreter and scripting language environment, originally designed by Harry H. Cheng as a scripting language for beginners to learn mathematics, computing, numerical analysis (numeric methods), and programming in C/C++. Ch is now developed and marketed by SoftIntegration, Inc. A student edition is freely available. Ch Professional Edition for Raspberry Pi is free for non-commercial use. wiki.



96: Chapel

Chapel, the Cascade High Productivity Language, is a parallel programming language developed by Cray[3]. It is being developed as part of the Cray Cascade project, a participant in DARPA's High Productivity Computing Systems (HPCS) program, which had the goal of increasing supercomputer productivity by the year 2010. It is being developed as an open source project, under version 2 of the Apache license[4]. wiki.



97: Charity

Charity is an experimental purely functional programming language, developed at the University of Calgary under the supervision of Robin Cockett. Based on ideas by Hagino Tatsuya, it is completely grounded in category theory. wiki.



98: Charm

Charm is a computer programming language devised in the early 1990s with similarities to the RTL/2, Pascal and C languages in addition to containing some unique features of its own. The Charm language is defined by a context-free grammar amenable to being processed by recursive descent parser as described in seminal books on compiler design.[1][2] wiki.



99: CHILL

In computing, CHILL (an acronym for CCITT High Level Language) is a procedural programming language designed for use in telecommunication switches (the hardware used inside telephone exchanges). The language is still used for legacy systems in some telecommunication companies and for signal box programming. wiki.



100: CHIP-8

CHIP-8 is an interpreted programming language, developed by Joseph Weisbecker. It was initially used on the COSMAC VIP and Telmac 1800 8-bit microcomputers in the mid-1970s. CHIP-8 programs are run on a CHIP-8 virtual machine. It was made to allow video games to be more easily programmed for these computers. wiki.



101: chomski

chomski virtual machine (named after the noted linguist Noam Chomsky) and pp (the pattern parser) refer to both a command line computer language and utility (interpreter for that language) which can be used to parse and transform text patterns. The utility reads input files character by character (sequentially), applying the operation which has been specified via the command line or a pp script, and then outputs the line. It was developed from 2006 as a Unix and Windows utility, and is available today for Windows and Linux systems. Pp has derived a number of ideas and syntax elements from Sed, a command line text stream editor. wiki.



102: ChucK

ChucK is a concurrent, strongly timed audio programming language for real-time synthesis, composition, and performance,[3] which runs on Linux, Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, and iOS. It is designed to favor readability and flexibility for the programmer over other considerations such as raw performance. It natively supports deterministic concurrency and multiple, simultaneous, dynamic control rates. Another key feature is the ability to live code; adding, removing, and modifying code on the fly, while the program is running, without stopping or restarting. It has a highly precise timing/concurrency model, allowing for arbitrarily fine granularity. It offers composers and researchers a powerful and flexible programming tool for building and experimenting with complex audio synthesis programs, and real-time interactive control.[4] wiki.



103: Cilk

Cilk, Cilk++ and Cilk Plus are general-purpose programming languages designed for multithreaded parallel computing. They are based on the C and C++ programming languages, which they extend with constructs to express parallel loops and the forkjoin idiom. wiki.



104: Citrine

Citrine is a general purpose programming language for Unix-like operating systems. It focuses on readability and maintainability. Readability is achieved by syntactic and conceptual minimalism. The language is heavily inspired by Smalltalk and Self but has some very distinctive features. Like Smalltalk, Citrine treats everything as an object and focuses on sending messages to these objects. However unlike Smalltalk, Citrine lacks the concept of a class. In this regard, Citrine is more like Self and JavaScript because it uses prototypes. The combination of Smalltalk like messages and prototypes is what makes Citrine unique. wiki.



105: CL

The IBM i Control Language (CL) is a scripting language for the IBM's IBM i platform (previously called OS/400 when running on AS/400 systems) bearing a resemblance to the IBM Job Control Language and consisting of an ever-expanding set of command objects (*CMD) used to invoke traditional AS/400 programs and/or get help on what those programs do. CL can also be used to create CL programs (congruent to shell scripts) where there are additional commands that provide program-like functionality (IF/ELSE, variable declaration, file input, etc.) wiki.



106: Claire

Claire is a high-level functional and object-oriented programming language with rule processing abilities. It was designed by Yves Caseau at Bouygues' e-Lab research laboratory, and received its final definition in 2004. wiki.



107: Clarion

Clarion is a commercial, proprietary, 4GL, multi-paradigm, programming language and Integrated Development Environment from SoftVelocity used to program database applications. It is compatible with ISAM, SQL and ADO data access methods, reads and writes several flat file desktop database formats including ASCII, CSV, DOS (Binary), FoxPro, Clipper, dBase, and some relational databases via ODBC, MS SQL Server, Sybase SQL Anywhere and Oracle through the use of accelerated native database drivers, and XML, Clarion can be used to output to HTML, XML, plaintext, and PDF, among others. wiki.



108: Clean

Clean is a general-purpose purely functional computer programming language. For much of the language's active development history it was called Concurrent Clean, but this was dropped at some point. wiki.



109: Clipper

Clipper is an xBase compiler, which is a computer programming language, that is used to create software programs that originally operated primarily under MS-DOS. Although it is a powerful general-purpose programming language, it was primarily used to create database/business programs. wiki.



110: CLIPS

CLIPS is a public domain software tool for building expert systems. The name is an acronym for "C Language Integrated Production System." The syntax and name was inspired by Charles Forgy's OPS ("Official Production System," although there was nothing really official about it). The first versions of CLIPS were developed starting in 1985 at NASA-Johnson Space Center (as an alternative for existing system ART*Inference) until the mid-1990s when the development group's responsibilities ceased to focus on expert system technology. The original name of the project was NASA's AI Language (NAIL). wiki.



111: CLIST

CLIST (Command List) (pronounced "C-List") is a procedural programming language for TSO in MVS systems. It originated in OS/360 Release 20 and has assumed a secondary role since the availability of Rexx in TSO/E Version 2. The term CLIST is also used for command lists written by users of NetView.[1] wiki.



112: Clojure

Clojure ( /klor/, like "closure"[6]) is a dialect of the Lisp programming language.[7] Clojure is a general-purpose programming language with an emphasis on functional programming.[8] It runs on the Java virtual machine and the Common Language Runtime.[9] There is a dialect, developed in lockstep with Clojure, called ClojureScript,[10] that compiles to ECMAScript 3.[11] Like other Lisps, Clojure treats code as data and has a macro system.[12] The current development process is community-driven,[13] overseen by Rich Hickey as its benevolent dictator for life (BDFL).[14] wiki.



113: CLU

CLU is a programming language created at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) by Barbara Liskov and her students between 1974 and 1975. While it did not find extensive use, it introduced many features that are used widely now, and is seen as a step in the development of object-oriented programming (OOP). wiki.



114: CMS-2

CMS-2 is an embedded systems programming language used by the United States Navy.[2] It was an early attempt to develop a standardized high-level computer programming language intended to improve code portability and reusability. CMS-2 was developed primarily for the US Navys tactical data systems (NTDS).[1] wiki.



115: COBOL

COBOL (/kobl, -bl/; an acronym for "common business-oriented language") is a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use. It is imperative, procedural and, since 2002, object-oriented. COBOL is primarily used in business, finance, and administrative systems for companies and governments. COBOL is still widely used in legacy applications deployed on mainframe computers, such as large-scale batch and transaction processing jobs. But due to its declining popularity and the retirement of experienced COBOL programmers, programs are being migrated to new platforms, rewritten in modern languages or replaced with software packages.[6] Most programming in COBOL is now purely to maintain existing applications.[7] wiki.



116: CobolScript

CobolScript is a programming language created by Matthew Dean and Charles Schereda of Deskware in 1999.[1] The language was intended to provide web-enabled COBOL, and was targeted at businesses using legacy software written in that language.[1] [2] wiki.



117: Cobra

Cobra is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language.[1] Cobra is designed by Charles Esterbrook, and runs on the Microsoft .NET and Mono platforms.[2] It is strongly influenced by Python, C#, Eiffel, Objective-C, and other programming languages.[3] It supports both static and dynamic typing.[4][5] It has support for unit tests and contracts.[4] It has lambda expressions, closures, list comprehensions, and generators.[6] wiki.



118: CoffeeScript

CoffeeScript is a programming language that transcompiles to JavaScript. It adds syntactic sugar inspired by Ruby, Python and Haskell in an effort to enhance JavaScript's brevity and readability.[4] Specific additional features include list comprehension and pattern matching. wiki.



119: ColdFusion

Adobe ColdFusion is a commercial rapid web application development platform created by J. J. Allaire in 1995.[1] (The programming language used with that platform is also commonly called ColdFusion, though is more accurately known as CFML.) ColdFusion was originally designed to make it easier to connect simple HTML pages to a database. By version 2 (1996), it became a full platform that included an IDE in addition to a full scripting language. wiki.



120: COMAL

COMAL (Common Algorithmic Language) is a computer programming language developed in Denmark by Benedict Lfstedt and Brge R. Christensen in 1973. COMAL was one of the few structured programming languages that was available for and comfortably usable on 8-bit home computers. wiki.



121: Combined Programming Language

CPL (Combined Programming Language) is a multi-paradigm programming language, that was developed in the early 1960s. It is an early ancestor of the C language via the BCPL and B languages. wiki.



122: COMIT

COMIT was the first string processing language (compare SNOBOL, TRAC, and Perl), developed on the IBM 700/7000 series computers by Dr. Victor Yngve and collaborators at MIT from 1957 to 1965. Yngve created the language for supporting computerized research in the field of linguistics, and more specifically, the area of machine translation for natural language processing. The creation of COMIT led to the creation of SNOBOL. wiki.



123: Common Intermediate Language

Common Intermediate Language (CIL), formerly called Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL), is the lowest-level human-readable programming language defined by the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) specification and is used by the .NET Framework, .NET Core, and Mono. Languages which target a CLI-compatible runtime environment compile to CIL, which is assembled into an object code that has a bytecode-style format. CIL is an object-oriented assembly language, and is entirely stack-based. Its bytecode is translated into native code ormost commonlyexecuted by a virtual machine. wiki.



124: Common Lisp

Common Lisp (CL) is a dialect of the Lisp programming language, published in ANSI standard document ANSI INCITS 226-1994 (R2004) (formerly X3.226-1994 (R1999)).[1] The Common Lisp HyperSpec, a hyperlinked HTML version, has been derived from the ANSI Common Lisp standard.[2] wiki.



125: COMPASS

COMPASS is an acronym for COMPrehensive ASSembler.[1] COMPASS is any of a family of macro assembly languages on Control Data Corporation's 3000 series, and on the 60-bit CDC 6000 series, 7600 and Cyber 70 and 170 series mainframe computers. While the architectures are very different, the macro and conditional assembly facilities are similar. wiki.



126: Component Pascal

Component Pascal is a programming language in the tradition of Niklaus Wirth's Pascal,[1] Modula-2,[2] Oberon[3][4] and Oberon-2.[5] It bears the name of the Pascal programming language and it preserves its heritage, but it is not compatible with Pascal. Instead, it is a minor variant and refinement of Oberon-2 with a more expressive type system and built-in string support. Component Pascal was originally designed and supported by a small ETH Zrich spin-off company called Oberon microsystems under the name Oberon/L. They developed an IDE (Integrated development environment) called BlackBox Component Builder. Since 2014 development and support has been taken over by a small group of volunteers. At the time the first version of the IDE was released (1994 as Oberon/F) it presented a novel approach to graphical user interface (GUI) construction based on editable forms, where fields and command buttons are linked to exported variables and executable procedures. This approach bears some similarity to the code-behind way used in Microsoft's .NET 3.0 to access code in XAML, which was released in 2008. wiki.



127: Constraint Handling Rules

Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) is a declarative, rule-based language, introduced in 1991 by Thom Frhwirth at the time with ECRC (European Computer-Industry Research Centre) in Munich, Germany.[1][2] Originally intended for constraint programming, CHR finds applications in grammar induction,[3] abductive reasoning, multi-agent systems, natural language processing, compilation, scheduling, spatial-temporal reasoning, testing and verification, and type systems. wiki.



128: COMTRAN

COMTRAN (COMmercial TRANslator) is an early programming language developed at IBM. It was intended as the business programming equivalent of the scientific programming language FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator). It served as one of the forerunners to the COBOL language. Developed by Bob Bemer, in 1957, the language was the first to feature the programming language element known as a picture clause. wiki.



129: Converge

Converge is a dynamic object-oriented programming language with compile-time meta-programming facilities. wiki.



130: Cool

Cool, an acronym for Classroom Object Oriented Language, is a computer programming language designed by Alexander Aiken for use in an undergraduate compiler course project. While small enough for a one term project, Cool still has many of the features of modern programming languages, including objects, automatic memory management, strong static typing and simple reflection. wiki.



131: Coq

In computer science, Coq is an interactive theorem prover. It allows the expression of mathematical assertions, mechanically checks proofs of these assertions, helps to find formal proofs, and extracts a certified program from the constructive proof of its formal specification. Coq works within the theory of the calculus of inductive constructions, a derivative of the calculus of constructions. Coq is not an automated theorem prover but includes automatic theorem proving tactics and various decision procedures. wiki.



132: Coral 66

CORAL (Computer On-line Real-time Applications Language) is a programming language originally developed in 1964 at the Royal Radar Establishment (RRE), Malvern, UK, as a subset of JOVIAL.[citation needed] Coral 66 was subsequently developed by I. F. Currie and M. Griffiths under the auspices of IECCA (Inter-Establishment Committee for Computer Applications). Its official definition,[1] edited by Woodward, Wetherall and Gorman, was first published in 1970. wiki.



133: CorVision

CorVision is a fourth generation programming tool (4GL) currently owned by Attunity, Inc. CorVision was developed by Cortex Corporation for the VAX/VMS ISAM environment. Although Cortex beta tested CorVision-10 which was generated for PCs but CorVision itself stayed anchored on VMS. CorVision-10 proved more difficult than hoped, and was never released. wiki.



134: COWSEL

COWSEL (COntrolled Working SpacE Language) is a programming language designed between 1964 and 1966 by Robin Popplestone. It was based on an RPN form of Lisp combined with some ideas from CPL. wiki.



135: CPL

CPL (Combined Programming Language) is a multi-paradigm programming language, that was developed in the early 1960s. It is an early ancestor of the C language via the BCPL and B languages. wiki.



136: Cryptol

Cryptol is a domain specific programming language for cryptography developed by the Portland, Oregon based software development firm, Galois, Inc..[1][2] The language was originally developed for use by the United States National Security Agency.[1][3] The language is also used by private firms that provide information technology systems, such as the American company Rockwell Collins provides to aerospace and defense contractors in the United States.[1] wiki.



137: Crystal

In computer software programming languages, Crystal is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language, designed and developed by Ary Borenszweig and Juan Wajnerman and more than 200 contributors.[3] With syntax inspired by the language Ruby, it is a compiled language with static type-checking, but specifying the types of variables or method arguments is generally unneeded. Types are resolved by an advanced global type inference algorithm.[4] Crystal is in active development. It is released as free and open-source software under the Apache License version 2.0. wiki.



138: Csound

Csound is a computer programming language for sound, also known as a sound compiler or an audio programming language, or more precisely, an audio DSL. It is called Csound because it is written in C, as opposed to some of its predecessors. wiki.



139: CSP

In computer science, communicating sequential processes (CSP) is a formal language for describing patterns of interaction in concurrent systems.[1] It is a member of the family of mathematical theories of concurrency known as process algebras, or process calculi, based on message passing via channels. CSP was highly influential in the design of the occam programming language,[1][2] and also influenced the design of programming languages such as Limbo,[3] RaftLib, Go[4], Crystal, and Clojure's core.async. wiki.



140: CUDA

CUDA is a parallel computing platform and application programming interface (API) model created by Nvidia.[1] It allows software developers and software engineers to use a CUDA-enabled graphics processing unit (GPU) for general purpose processing an approach termed GPGPU (General-Purpose computing on Graphics Processing Units). The CUDA platform is a software layer that gives direct access to the GPU's virtual instruction set and parallel computational elements, for the execution of compute kernels.[2] wiki.



141: Cuneiform

Cuneiform is an open-source workflow language for large-scale scientific data analysis.[1][2] It is a statically typed functional programming language promoting parallel computing. It features a versatile foreign function interface allowing users to integrate software from many external programming languages. At the organizational level Cuneiform provides facilities like conditional branching and general recursion making it Turing-complete. In this, Cuneiform is the attempt to close the gap between scientific workflow systems like Taverna, KNIME, or Galaxy and large-scale data analysis programming models like MapReduce or Pig Latin while offering the generality of a functional programming language. wiki.



142: Curl

Curl is a reflective object-oriented programming language for interactive web applications whose goal is to provide a smoother transition between formatting and programming. It makes it possible to embed complex objects in simple documents without needing to switch between programming languages or development platforms. The Curl implementation initially consisted of just an interpreter, but a compiler was added later. wiki.



143: Curry

Curry[1] is an experimental functional logic programming language,[2] based on the Haskell language. It merges elements of functional and logic programming, including constraint programming integration. wiki.



144: Cybil

Cybil (short for the Cyber Implementation Language of the Control Data Network Operating System) was a Pascal-like language developed at Control Data Corporation.[1] Cybil was used as the implementation language for the NOS/VE operating system[2] on the CDC Cyber series and was also used to write the eOS operating system for the ETA10 supercomputer in the 1980s. wiki.



145: Cyclone

The Cyclone programming language is intended to be a safe dialect of the C language. Cyclone is designed to avoid buffer overflows and other vulnerabilities that are possible in C programs, without losing the power and convenience of C as a tool for system programming. wiki.



146: Cython

Cython is a superset of the Python programming language, designed to give C-like performance with code that is mostly written in Python.[3][4] wiki.



147: D

D is an object-oriented, imperative, multi-paradigm system programming language created by Walter Bright of Digital Mars and released in 2001. Bright was joined in the design and development effort in 2007 by Andrei Alexandrescu. Though it originated as a re-engineering of C++, D is a distinct language, having redesigned some core C++ features while also taking inspiration from other languages, notably Java, Python, Ruby, C#, and Eiffel. wiki.



148: DASL

DASL (Datapoint's Advanced Systems Language) was a programming language and compiler proprietary to Datapoint. Primarily influenced by Pascal with some C touches, it was created in the early 1980s by Gene Hughes. wiki.



149: Dart

Dart is a general-purpose programming language originally developed by Google and later approved as a standard by Ecma (ECMA-408).[7] It is used to build web, server and mobile applications,[8] and for Internet of Things (IoT) devices.[9] It is open-source software under a permissive free software license (modified BSD license). wiki.



150: Darwin

Darwin is a closed source[1] programming language developed by Gaston Gonnet and colleagues at ETH Zurich.[2] [3] It is used to develop the OMA orthology inference software[4], which was also initially developed by Gonnet.[5] The language backend consists of the kernel, responsible for performing simple mathematical calculations, for transporting and storing data and for interpreting the user's commands, and the library, a set of programs which can perform more complicated calculations.[6] The target audience for the language is the biosciences, so the library consisted of routines such as those to compute pairwise alignments, phylogenetic trees, multiple sequence alignments, and to make secondary structure predictions. wiki.



151: DataFlex

DataFlex (formerly known as Visual DataFlex) is a visual tool for developing Windows, web and mobile software applications on one framework-based platform. wiki.



152: Datalog

Datalog is a declarative logic programming language that syntactically is a subset of Prolog. It is often used as a query language for deductive databases. In recent years, Datalog has found new application in data integration, information extraction, networking, program analysis, security, and cloud computing.[1] wiki.



153: DATATRIEVE

DATATRIEVE is a database query and report writer tool from Hewlett-Packard. It runs on the OpenVMS operating system, as well as several PDP-11 operating systems. DATATRIEVE's command structure is nearly plain English, and it is an early example of a Fourth Generation Language (4GL). It works against flat files, indexed files, and databases. Such data files are delimited using record definitions stored in the Common Data Dictionary (CDD), or in RMS files. DATATRIEVE is used at many OpenVMS installations. wiki.



154: dBase

dBase (also stylized dBASE) was one of the first database management systems for microcomputers, and the most successful in its day.[2] The dBase system includes the core database engine, a query system, a forms engine, and a programming language that ties all of these components together. dBase's underlying file format, the .dbf file, is widely used in applications needing a simple format to store structured data. wiki.



155: dc

dc (desk calculator) is a cross-platform reverse-polish calculator which supports arbitrary-precision arithmetic.[1] It is one of the oldest Unix utilities, predating even the invention of the C programming language. Like other utilities of that vintage, it has a powerful set of features but terse syntax.[2][3] Traditionally, the bc calculator program (with infix notation) was implemented on top of dc. wiki.



156: DCL

DIGITAL Command Language (DCL) is the standard command language adopted by most of the operating systems (OSs) that were sold by the former Digital Equipment Corporation (which was acquired by Compaq, which was in turn acquired by Hewlett-Packard). DCL had its roots in the IAS, TOPS-20, and RT-11 OSs and was implemented as a standard across most of Digital's OSs, notably RSX-11, but took its most powerful form in the OpenVMS OS. wiki.



157: Delphi

Object Pascal refers to a branch of object-oriented derivatives of Pascal, mostly known as the primary programming language of Delphi. wiki.



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158: DinkC

Dink Smallwood is an action role-playing video game, developed by Robinson Technologies, at the time consisting of Seth Robinson, Justin Martin, and Greg Smith. It was first released in 1998 before being released as freeware on October 17, 1999.[1] Mitch Brink composed several of the game's music tracks, while others are MIDI forms of classical music, such as Debussy's "Reverie". The game has a small but constant fan following that continues to develop add-ons for the game more than a decade after its release.[2] The game is also notable for its humorous dialogue and surrealistic themes in various scenes between the gameplay. wiki.



159: DIBOL

DiBOL or Digital's Business Oriented Language is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative programming language, designed for use in Management Information Systems (MIS) software development. It has a syntax similar to FORTRAN and BASIC, along with BCD arithmetic. It shares the COBOL program structure of data and procedure divisions. wiki.



160: Dog

Sepandar David Kamvar (born 1977), also known as Sep Kamvar, is a computer scientist, artist, and entrepreneur.[1][2][3][4] He is currently the LG Career Development Professor of Media Arts and Sciences at MIT, and he was director of the Social Computing group at the MIT Media Lab.[3][5] wiki.



161: Draco

Draco was a shareware programming language created by Chris Gray. First developed for CP/M sytems, Amiga version followed in 1987.[1] wiki.



162: DRAKON

DRAKON is an algorithmic visual programming language developed within the Buran space project following ergonomic design principles. The language provides a uniform way to represent flowcharts of any complexity that are easy to read and understand. wiki.



163: Dylan

Dylan is a multi-paradigm programming language that includes support for functional and object-oriented programming, and is dynamic and reflective while providing a programming model designed to support efficient machine code generation, including fine-grained control over dynamic and static behaviors. It was created in the early 1990s by a group led by Apple Computer. wiki.



164: DYNAMO

DYNAMO (DYNAmic MOdels) was a simulation language and accompanying graphical notation developed within the system dynamics analytical framework. It was originally for industrial dynamics but was soon extended to other applications, including population and resource studies[1][2] and urban planning.[3][4] wiki.



165: DAX (Data Analysis Expressions)

Data Analysis Expressions (DAX) is the native formula and query language for Microsoft PowerPivot, Power BI Desktop and SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS) Tabular models. DAX includes some of the functions that are used in Excel formulas with additional functions that are designed to work with relational data and perform dynamic aggregation. It is, in part, an evolution of the Multidimensional Expression (MDX) language developed by Microsoft for Analysis Services multidimensional models (often called cubes) combined with Excel formula functions. It is designed to be simple and easy to learn, while exposing the power and flexibility of PowerPivot and SSAS tabular models. wiki.



166: E

E is an object-oriented programming language for secure distributed computing, created by Mark S. Miller, Dan Bornstein, and others at Electric Communities in 1997. E is mainly descended from the concurrent language Joule and from Original-E, a set of extensions to Java for secure distributed programming. E combines message-based computation with Java-like syntax. A concurrency model based on event loops and promises ensures that deadlock can never occur.[citation needed] wiki.



167: Ease

Ease is a general purpose parallel programming language, designed by Steven Ericsson-Zenith of Yale University. It combines the process constructs of CSP with logically shared data structures called contexts. Contexts are parallel data types that are constructed by processes and provide a way for processes to interact. wiki.



168: Easy PL/I

PL/I (Programming Language One, pronounced /pi l wn/) is a procedural, imperative computer programming language designed for scientific, engineering, business and system programming uses. It has been used by various academic, commercial and industrial organizations since it was introduced in the 1960s, and continues to be actively used.[2] wiki.



169: EASYTRIEVE PLUS

Easytrieve is a Report generator product of CA Technologies. Easytrieve Classic and Easytrieve Plus are two available versions of this programming languages primarily designed to generate reports and are used by large corporations operating in mainframe (z/OS, z/VM, z/VSE), UNIX, Linux, and Microsoft Windows environments wiki.



170: eC

eC (Ecere C) is an object-oriented programming language, defined as a super-set of the C language. wiki.



171: ECMAScript

ECMAScript (or ES)[1] is a trademarked[2] scripting-language specification standardized by Ecma International in ECMA-262 and ISO/IEC 16262. It was created to standardize JavaScript, so as to foster multiple independent implementations. JavaScript has remained the best-known implementation of ECMAScript since the standard was first published, with other well-known implementations including JScript and ActionScript.[3] ECMAScript is commonly used for client-side scripting on the World Wide Web, and it is increasingly being used for writing server applications and services using Node.js. wiki.



172: Edinburgh IMP

Edinburgh IMP is a development of ATLAS Autocode, initially developed around 1966-1969 at Edinburgh University, Scotland. IMP was a general-purpose programming language which was used heavily for systems programming. wiki.



173: EGL

EGL (Enterprise Generation Language), originally developed by IBM and now available as the EDT (EGL Development Tools)[1] Open Source project under the Eclipse Public License (EPL), is a programming technology designed to meet the challenges of modern, multi-platform application development by providing a common language and programming model across languages, frameworks, and runtime platforms. The language borrows concepts familiar to anyone using statically typed languages like Java, COBOL, C, etc. However, it borrows the concept of stereotype from Unified Modeling Language (UML) that is not typically found in statically typed programming languages. wiki.



174: Eiffel

Eiffel is an object-oriented programming language designed by Bertrand Meyer (an object-orientation proponent and author of Object-Oriented Software Construction) and Eiffel Software. Meyer conceived the language in 1985 with the goal of increasing the reliability of commercial software development;[4] the first version becoming available in 1986. In 2005, Eiffel became an ISO-standardized language. wiki.



175: ELAN

ELAN is an educational programming language for learning and teaching systematic programming. wiki.



176: Elixir

Elixir is a functional, concurrent, general-purpose programming language that runs on the Erlang virtual machine (BEAM).[3] Elixir builds on top of Erlang and shares the same abstractions for building distributed, fault-tolerant applications. Elixir also provides a productive tooling and an extensible design. The latter is supported by compile-time metaprogramming with macros and polymorphism via protocols.[4] wiki.



177: Elm

Elm is a domain-specific programming language for declaratively creating web browser-based graphical user interfaces. Elm is purely functional, and is developed with emphasis on usability, performance, and robustness. It advertises "no runtime exceptions in practice,"[4] made possible by the Elm compiler's static type checking. wiki.



178: Emacs Lisp

Emacs Lisp is a dialect of the Lisp programming language used as a scripting language by Emacs (a text editor family most commonly associated with GNU Emacs and XEmacs). It is used for implementing most of the editing functionality built into Emacs, the remainder being written in C (as is the Lisp interpreter itself). Emacs Lisp is also referred to as Elisp, although there is also an older, unrelated Lisp dialect with that name.[1] wiki.



179: Emerald

Emerald is a distributed, object-oriented programming language developed in the 1980s by Andrew P. Black, Norman C. Hutchinson, Eric B. Jul, and Henry M. Levy, in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Washington.[1] wiki.



180: Epigram

Epigram is a functional programming language with dependent types. Epigram also refers to the IDE usually packaged with the language. Epigram's type system is strong enough to express program specifications. The goal is to support a smooth transition from ordinary programming to integrated programs and proofs whose correctness can be checked and certified by the compiler. Epigram exploits the propositions as types principle, and is based on intuitionistic type theory. wiki.



181: EPL (Easy Programming Language)

Easy Programming Language (EPL, Chinese: ) is a Chinese programming language, featuring a full Chinese environment. Its community may be the largest of all non-English-based programming languages. EPL is somewhat popular in China, considering the difficulties of adopting English for most Chinese speakers. wiki.



182: EPL (Eltron Programming Language)

Eltron Programming Language (EPL and EPL2) is a printer control language used to produce printed paper labels for various Eltron (now Zebra) model printers. wiki.



183: Erlang

Erlang (/rl/ UR-lang) is a general-purpose, concurrent, functional programming language, as well as a garbage-collected runtime system. wiki.



184: es

rc (for "run commands") is the command line interpreter for Version 10 Unix and Plan 9 from Bell Labs operating systems. It resembles the Bourne shell, but its syntax is somewhat simpler. It was created by Tom Duff, who is better known for an unusual C programming language construct ("Duff's device"). wiki.



185: Escher

Escher (named for M. C. Escher, "a master of endless loops") is a declarative programming language that supports both functional programming and logic programming models, developed by J.W. Lloyd in the mid-1990s. It was designed mostly as a research and teaching vehicle. The basic view of programming exhibited by Escher and related languages is that a program is a representation of a theory in some logic framework, and the program's execution (computation) is a deduction from the theory. The logic framework for Escher is Alonzo Church's simple theory of types. wiki.



186: ESPOL

ESPOL (short for Executive Systems Problem Oriented Language) was a superset of ALGOL 60 that provided capabilities of what would later be known as Mohols, machine oriented high order languages, such as interrupting a processor on a multiprocessor system (the Burroughs large systems were multiprocessor processor systems). ESPOL was used to write the MCP (Master Control Program) on Burroughs computer systems from the B5000 to the B6700. The single-pass compiler for ESPOL could compile over 250 lines per second. wiki.



187: Esterel

Esterel is a synchronous programming language for the development of complex reactive systems. The imperative programming style of Esterel allows the simple expression of parallelism and preemption. As a consequence, it is well suited for control-dominated model designs. wiki.



188: Etoys

Etoys is a child-friendly computer environment and object-oriented prototype-based programming language for use in education. wiki.



189: Euclid

Euclid is an imperative programming language for writing verifiable programs. It was designed by Butler Lampson and associates at the Xerox PARC lab in the mid-1970s. The implementation was led by Ric Holt at the University of Toronto and James Cordy was the principal programmer for the first implementation of the compiler. It was originally designed for the Motorola 6809 microprocessor. It was considered innovative for the time; the compiler development team had a $2 million budget over 2 years and was commissioned by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense and the Canadian Department of National Defence. It was used for a few years at I. P. Sharp Associates, MITRE Corporation, SRI International and various other international institutes for research in systems programming and secure software systems. wiki.



190: Euler

Euler is a programming language created by Niklaus Wirth and Helmut Weber, conceived as an extension and generalization of ALGOL 60. The designers' goal was to create a language: wiki.



191: Euphoria

Euphoria is a programming language originally created by Robert Craig of Rapid Deployment Software[1] in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Initially developed (though not publicly released) on the Atari ST,[2] the first commercial release[3] was for the 16-bit DOS platform and was proprietary. In 2006, with the release of version 3,[4] Euphoria became open-source software. The openEuphoria Group continues to administer and develop the project.[5] In December 2010, the openEuphoria Group released version 4[6] of openEuphoria along with a new identity and mascot for the project. OpenEuphoria is currently available for Windows, Linux, macOS and three flavors of *BSD. wiki.



192: EusLisp Robot Programming Language

EusLisp is a Lisp-based programming system. Built on the basis of object orientation, it is designed specifically for developing robotics software. The first version of it ran in 1986 on Unix-System5/Ustation-E20.[1] wiki.



193: CMS EXEC

CMS EXEC, or EXEC, is an interpreted, command procedure control, computer scripting language used by the CMS EXEC Processor supplied with the IBM Virtual Machine/Conversational Monitor System (VM/CMS) operating system. wiki.



194: EXEC 2

EXEC 2 is an interpreted, command procedure control, computer scripting language used by the EXEC 2 Processor supplied with the IBM Virtual Machine/System Product (VM/SP) operating system.[1] wiki.



195: Executable UML

Executable UML (xtUML or xUML) is both a software development method and a highly abstract software language. It was described for the first time in 2002 in the book "Executable UML: A Foundation for Model-Driven Architecture"[1]. The language "combines a subset of the UML (Unified Modeling Language) graphical notation with executable semantics and timing rules."[2] The Executable UML method is the successor to the ShlaerMellor method.[3] wiki.



196: F

F is a modular, compiled, numeric programming language, designed for scientific programming and scientific computation.[1] F was developed as a modern Fortran, thus making it a subset of Fortran 95.[2] It combines both numerical and data abstraction features from these languages. F is also backwards compatible with Fortran 77, allowing calls to Fortran 77 programs. F was first included in the g95 compiler. wiki.



197: F#

F# (pronounced F sharp) is a strongly typed, multi-paradigm programming language that encompasses functional, imperative, and object-oriented programming methods. F# is most often used as a cross-platform Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) language, but it can also generate JavaScript[8] and graphics processing unit (GPU) code.[9] wiki.



198: F*

F* (pronounced F star) is a functional programming language inspired by ML and aimed at program verification. Its type system includes dependent types, monadic effects, and refinement types. This allows expressing precise specifications for programs, including functional correctness and security properties. The F* type-checker aims to prove that programs meet their specifications using a combination of SMT solving and manual proofs. Programs written in F* can be translated to OCaml, F#, and C for execution. Previous versions of F* could also be translated to JavaScript. wiki.



199: Factor

Factor is a stack-oriented programming language created by Slava Pestov. Factor is dynamically typed and has automatic memory management, as well as powerful metaprogramming features. The language has a single implementation featuring a self-hosted optimizing compiler and an interactive development environment. The Factor distribution includes a large standard library. wiki.



200: Falcon

Falcon is an open source, multi-paradigm programming language. Design and implementation is led by Giancarlo Niccolai,[3][4] a native of Bologna, Italy and Information Technology graduate from Pistoia. wiki.



201: Fantom

Fantom is a general purpose object-oriented programming language created by Brian and Andy Frank[4] that runs on the Java Runtime Environment (JRE), JavaScript, and the .NET Common Language Runtime (CLR) (.NET support is considered "prototype"[5] status). Its primary design goal is to provide a standard library API[6] that abstracts away the question of whether the code will ultimately run on the JRE or CLR. Like C# and Java, Fantom uses a curly brace syntax. The language supports functional programming through closures and concurrency through the Actor model. Fantom takes a "middle of the road" approach to its type system, blending together aspects of both static and dynamic typing. wiki.



202: FAUST

FAUST (Functional AUdio STream) is a domain-specific purely functional programming language for implementing signal processing algorithms in the form of libraries, audio plug-ins, or standalone applications. A FAUST program denotes a signal processor: a mathematical function that is applied to some input signal and then fed out. wiki.



203: FFP

FP (short for Function Programming) is a programming language created by John Backus to support the function-level programming[2] paradigm. This allows eliminating named variables. The language was introduced in Backus's 1977 Turing Award lecture, "Can Programming Be Liberated from the von Neumann Style?", subtitled "a functional style and its algebra of programs." The paper sparked interest in functional programming research,[3] eventually leading to modern functional languages, and not the function-level paradigm Backus had hoped. FP itself never found much use outside of academia.[4] In the 1980s Backus created a successor language, FL, which remained a research project. wiki.



204: Fjlnir

Fjlnir (also Fjolnir or Fjoelnir) is a programming language developed by professor Snorri Agnarsson of computer science at Hskli slands (University of Iceland) that was mostly used in the 1980s. The source files usually have the extension fjo or sma. wiki.



205: FL

FL (short for Function Level) is a functional programming language created at the IBM Almaden Research Center by John Backus, John Williams, and Edward Wimmers in the 1980s and documented in a report from 1989.[1] FL was designed as a successor of Backus' earlier FP language, providing specific support for what Backus termed function-level programming. wiki.



206: Flavors

Flavors,[1] an early object-oriented extension to Lisp developed by Howard Cannon at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory for the Lisp machine and its programming language Lisp Machine Lisp, was the first programming language to include mixins.[2] Symbolics used it for its Lisp machines, and eventually developed it into New Flavors; both the original and new Flavors were message passing OO models. It was hugely influential in the development of the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS).[3] wiki.



207: Flex

In computing, the FLEX language was developed by Alan Kay in the late 1960s while exploring ideas that would later evolve into the Smalltalk programming language.[1] wiki.



208: FlooP

BlooP and FlooP are simple programming languages designed by Douglas Hofstadter to illustrate a point in his book Gdel, Escher, Bach.[1] BlooP is a non-Turing-complete programming language whose main control flow structure is a bounded loop (i.e. recursion is not permitted). All programs in the language must terminate, and this language can only express primitive recursive functions.[2] wiki.



209: FLOW-MATIC

FLOW-MATIC, originally known as B-0 (Business Language version 0), was the first English-like data processing language. It was developed for the UNIVAC I at Remington Rand under Grace Hopper during the period from 1955 until 1959. It had a strong influence on the development of COBOL. wiki.



210: FOCAL

FOCAL is an interpreted programming language resembling JOSS. The name is an acronym for Formulating On-Line Calculations in Algebraic Language. wiki.



211: FOCUS

FOCUS is a fourth-generation programming language (4GL) computer programming language and development environment that is used to build database queries. Produced by Information Builders Inc., it was originally developed for data handling and analysis on the IBM mainframe. Subsequently versions for minicomputers and such as the VAX and other platforms[1] were implemented.[2][3] FOCUS was later extended to personal computers and (in 1997) to the World Wide Web: the WebFOCUS product. wiki.



212: FOIL

FOIL was the name for two different programming languages. wiki.



213: FORMAC

FORMAC, acronym of FORmula MAnipulation Compiler, was an early computer algebra system based on FORTRAN. It was developed by Jean E. Sammet. wiki.



214: @Formula

The Formula language is a scripting language used by Lotus Notes. It is often referred to as @Formula language (pronounced at-formula) because many language elements start with the @-character. Here is an example of a selection formula: wiki.



215: Forth

Forth is an imperative stack-based computer programming language and environment originally designed by Charles "Chuck" Moore. Language features include structured programming, reflection (the ability to modify the program structure during program execution), concatenative programming (functions are composed with juxtaposition) and extensibility (the programmer can create new commands). Although not an acronym, the language's name is sometimes spelled with all capital letters as FORTH, following the customary usage during its earlier years. wiki.



216: Fortran

Fortran (/frtrn/; formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation[2]) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. Originally developed by IBM[3] in the 1950s for scientific and engineering applications, FORTRAN came to dominate this area of programming early on and has been in continuous use for over half a century in computationally intensive areas such as numerical weather prediction, finite element analysis, computational fluid dynamics, computational physics, crystallography and computational chemistry. It is a popular language for high-performance computing[4] and is used for programs that benchmark and rank the world's fastest supercomputers.[5] wiki.



217: Fortress

Fortress is a discontinued experimental programming language for high-performance computing, created by Sun Microsystems with funding from DARPA's High Productivity Computing Systems project. One of the language designers was Guy L. Steele Jr., whose previous work includes Scheme, Common Lisp, and Java. wiki.



218: FoxBase

Visual FoxPro is a discontinued data-centric, object-oriented, procedural, programming language produced by Microsoft. It was derived from FoxPro (originally known as FoxBASE) which was developed by Fox Software beginning in 1984. Fox Technologies merged with Microsoft in 1992, after which the software acquired further features and the prefix "Visual".[6] FoxPro 2.6 worked on Mac OS, DOS, Windows, and Unix. Visual FoxPro 3.0, the first "Visual" version, reduced platform support to only Mac[7] and Windows, and later versions 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 were Windows-only. The current version of Visual FoxPro is COM-based and Microsoft has stated that they do not intend to create a Microsoft .NET version. wiki.



219: FoxPro

FoxPro was a text-based procedurally oriented programming language and database management system (DBMS), and it is also an object-oriented programming language, originally published by Fox Software and later by Microsoft, for MS-DOS, Windows, Macintosh, and UNIX. The final published release of FoxPro was 2.6. Development continued under the Visual FoxPro label, which in turn was discontinued in 2007. wiki.



220: FP

FP (short for Function Programming) is a programming language created by John Backus to support the function-level programming[2] paradigm. This allows eliminating named variables. The language was introduced in Backus's 1977 Turing Award lecture, "Can Programming Be Liberated from the von Neumann Style?", subtitled "a functional style and its algebra of programs." The paper sparked interest in functional programming research,[3] eventually leading to modern functional languages, and not the function-level paradigm Backus had hoped. FP itself never found much use outside of academia.[4] In the 1980s Backus created a successor language, FL, which remained a research project. wiki.



221: Franz Lisp

In computer programming, Franz Lisp was a Lisp system written at UC Berkeley by the students of Professor Richard J. Fateman, based largely on Maclisp and distributed with the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) for the Digital Equipment Corp (DEC) VAX. Piggybacking on the popularity of the BSD package, Franz Lisp was probably the most widely distributed and used Lisp system of the 1970s and 1980s.[1] wiki.



222: Frege

Frege is a non-strict, purely functional programming language for the Java virtual machine in the spirit of Haskell. wiki.



223: F-Script

F-Script is an object-oriented scripting programming language for Apple's OS X operating system developed by Philippe Mougin. F-Script is an interactive language based on Smalltalk, using OS X's native Cocoa API. wiki.



224: G

G-code (also RS-274), which has many variants, is the common name for the most widely used numerical control (NC) programming language. It is used mainly in computer-aided manufacturing to control automated machine tools. wiki.



225: Game Maker Language

GameMaker Studio (formerly Animo until 1999, Game Maker until 2011, GameMaker until 2012, and GameMaker: Studio until 2017) is a cross-platform game engine developed by YoYo Games. wiki.



226: GameMonkey Script

GameMonkey Script is a small, cross-platform scripting language designed for embedding into games. GameMonkey bears many similarities to Lua, except the syntax is more similar to that of C. wiki.



227: GAMS

The General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) is a high-level modeling system for mathematical optimization. GAMS is designed for modeling and solving linear, nonlinear, and mixed-integer optimization problems. The system is tailored for complex, large-scale modeling applications and allows the user to build large maintainable models that can be adapted to new situations. The system is available for use on various computer platforms. Models are portable from one platform to another. wiki.



228: GAP

GAP (Groups, Algorithms and Programming) is a computer algebra system for computational discrete algebra with particular emphasis on computational group theory. wiki.



229: G-code

G-code (also RS-274), which has many variants, is the common name for the most widely used numerical control (NC) programming language. It is used mainly in computer-aided manufacturing to control automated machine tools. wiki.



230: GDScript

Godot is a 2D and 3D cross-platform compatible game engine released as open source software under the MIT license. It was initially developed for several companies in Latin America before its public release.[2] The development environment runs on Windows, macOS, Linux, BSD and Haiku (both 32 and 64-bit) and can create games targeting PC, console, mobile and web platforms. wiki.



231: Genie

Genie is a modern, general-purpose high-level programming language in active development since 2008.[1] It was designed as an alternative, simpler and cleaner dialect for the Vala compiler, while preserving the same functionality of the Vala language. Genie uses the same compiler and libraries as Vala; the two can indeed be used alongside each other.[2] The differences are only syntactic. wiki.



232: GDL

In computer-aided design, Geometric Description Language (GDL) is the programming language of ArchiCAD library parts. GSM is the file format of these CAD objects. wiki.



233: GJ

Generics are a facility of generic programming that were added to the Java programming language in 2004 within version J2SE 5.0. They were designed to extend Java's type system to allow a type or method to operate on objects of various types while providing compile-time type safety[1]. The aspect compile-time type safety was not fully achieved, since it was shown in 2016 that it is not guaranteed in all cases.[2] wiki.



234: GEORGE

GEORGE is a programming language invented by Charles Leonard Hamblin in 1957.[1][2] wiki.



235: GLSL

OpenGL Shading Language (abbreviated: GLSL), is a high-level shading language with a syntax based on the C programming language. It was created by the OpenGL ARB (OpenGL Architecture Review Board) to give developers more direct control of the graphics pipeline without having to use ARB assembly language or hardware-specific languages. wiki.



236: GNU E

GNU E is an extension of C++ designed for writing software systems to support persistent applications. It was designed as part of the Exodus project. wiki.



237: GM

A software release life cycle is the sum of the stages of development and maturity for a piece of computer software: ranging from its initial development to its eventual release, and including updated versions of the released version to help improve software or fix software bugs still present in the software. wiki.



238: Go

Go (often referred to as Golang) is a programming language created at Google[10] in 2009 by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson.[9] Go is a statically typed compiled language in the tradition of C, with memory safety, garbage collection, structural typing,[2] and CSP-style concurrent programming features added.[12] The compiler and other tools originally developed by Google are all free and open source.[13] wiki.



239: Go!

Go! is an agent-based programming language in the tradition of logic-based programming languages like Prolog.[1] It was introduced in a 2003 paper by Francis McCabe and Keith Clark.[2] wiki.



240: GOAL

Game Oriented Assembly Lisp (or GOAL) is a video game programming language developed by Andy Gavin and the Jak and Daxter team at Naughty Dog. It was written using Allegro Common Lisp and used in the development of the entire Jak and Daxter series of games. wiki.



241: Gdel

Gdel is a declarative, general-purpose programming language that adheres to the logic programming paradigm. It is a strongly typed language, the type system being based on many-sorted logic with parametric polymorphism. It is named after logician Kurt Gdel. wiki.



242: Golo

Golo is computer software, a programming language for the Java virtual machine (JVM). It is simple, with dynamic, weak typing. It was created in 2012 as part of the research activities of the DynaMid group of the Centre of Innovation in Telecommunications and Integration of service (CITI) Laboratory at Institut national des sciences appliques de Lyon (INSA). It is distributed as free and open-source software under the Eclipse Public License 1.0. wiki.



243: GOM (Good Old Mad)

MAD (Michigan Algorithm Decoder) is a programming language and compiler for the IBM 704 and later the IBM 709, IBM 7090, IBM 7040, UNIVAC 1107, UNIVAC 1108, Philco 210-211, and eventually the IBM S/370 mainframe computers. Developed in 1959 at the University of Michigan by Bernard Galler, Bruce Arden and Robert M. Graham, MAD is a variant of the ALGOL language. It was widely used to teach programming at colleges and universities during the 1960s and played a minor role in the development of CTSS, Multics, and the Michigan Terminal System computer operating systems.[1] wiki.



244: Google Apps Script

Apps Script is a scripting language for light-weight application development in the G Suite platform. It is based on JavaScript 1.6 with some portions of 1.7 and 1.8 and provides subset of ECMAScript 5 API,[2] however instead of running on the client, it gets executed in the Google Cloud. According to Google, Apps Script "provides easy ways to automate tasks across Google products and third party services."[3] Apps Script is also the tool that powers the add-ons for Google Docs, Sheets and Slides.[4] wiki.



245: Gosu

Gosu is a statically-typed programming language that runs on the Java Virtual Machine released under the Apache 2.[1] This general-purpose programming language is used in several open-source software projects including SparkGS and Ragnar DB among several others, and is widely used in the insurance industry via Guidewire Software's commercial products.[1][2] The language borrows from several existing languages including Java, C#, and ECMAScript. A notable and unique feature is its Open Type System, which allows the language to be easily extended to provide compile-time checking and IDE awareness of information that is typically checked only at runtime in most other languages. Also of note is the language's ability to serve as both a full-featured general purpose language and as a concise scripting language. For instance, Gosu has free-form Program types (.gsp files) for scripting as well as statically verified Template files (.gst files). Gosu can optionally execute these and all other types directly from source without precompilation, which also distinguishes it from other static languages. wiki.



246: GOTRAN

The IBM 1620 was announced by IBM on October 21, 1959,[1] and marketed as an inexpensive "scientific computer".[2] After a total production of about two thousand machines, it was withdrawn on November 19, 1970. Modified versions of the 1620 were used as the CPU of the IBM 1710 and IBM 1720 Industrial Process Control Systems (making it the first digital computer considered reliable enough for real-time process control of factory equipment). wiki.



247: GPSS

General Purpose Simulation System (GPSS) (originally Gordon's Programmable Simulation System after creator Geoffrey Gordon; the name was changed when it was decided to release it as a product) is a discrete time simulation general-purpose programming language, where a simulation clock advances in discrete steps. A system is modelled as transactions enter the system and are passed from one service (represented by blocs) to another. This is particularly well-suited for problems such as a factory. wiki.



248: GraphTalk

Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) was an American multinational corporation that provided information technology (IT) services and professional services. On April 3, 2017, it merged with the Enterprise Services line of business of HP Enterprise to create DXC Technology.[2][3] wiki.



249: GRASS

GRASS (GRAphics Symbiosis System) is a programming language created to script 2D vector graphics animations. GRASS was similar to BASIC in syntax, but added numerous instructions for specifying 2D object animation, including scaling, translation, rotation and color changes over time. It quickly became a hit with the artistic community who were experimenting with the new medium of computer graphics, and will remain most famous for its use by Larry Cuba to create the original "attacking the Death Star will not be easy" animation in Star Wars (1977). A later version that was adapted to support raster graphics was known as ZGrass. wiki.



250: Groovy

Apache Groovy is a Java-syntax-compatible object-oriented programming language for the Java platform. It is both a static and dynamic language with features similar to those of Python, Ruby, Perl, and Smalltalk. It can be used as both a programming language and a scripting language for the Java Platform, is compiled to Java virtual machine (JVM) bytecode, and interoperates seamlessly with other Java code and libraries. Groovy uses a curly-bracket syntax similar to Java's. Groovy supports closures, multiline strings, and expressions embedded in strings. Much of Groovy's power lies in its AST transformations, triggered through annotations. wiki.



251: Hack

Hack is a programming language for the HipHop Virtual Machine (HHVM), created by Facebook as a dialect of PHP. The language implementation is open-source, licensed under the BSD License.[2][3][4] wiki.



252: HAGGIS

HAGGIS is a high-level reference programming language used primarily to examine Computing Science for Scottish pupils taking SQA courses on the subject.[1] HAGGIS is used as a tool to bridge the gap between pseudocode and typical computer programming.[2] wiki.



253: HAL/S

HAL/S (High-order Assembly Language/Shuttle)[1] is a real-time aerospace programming language compiler and cross-compiler for avionics applications used by NASA and associated agencies (JPL, etc.). It has been used in many U.S. space projects since 1973 and its most significant use was in the Space Shuttle program (approximately 85% of the Shuttle software is coded in HAL/S).[2] It was designed by Intermetrics in 1972 for NASA and delivered in 1973. HAL/S is written in XPL, a dialect of PL/I.[3] Although HAL/S is designed primarily for programming on-board computers, it is general enough to meet nearly all the needs in the production, verification, and support of aerospace and other real-time applications. It is currently (2005) maintained by the HAL/S project of United Space Alliance.[4] wiki.



254: Halide (programming language)

Halide is a computer programming language designed for writing digital image processing code that takes advantage of memory locality, vectorized computation and multi-core CPUs and GPUs.[1] Halide is implemented as an internal domain-specific language (DSL) in C++. wiki.



255: Hamilton C shell

Hamilton C shell is a clone of the Unix C shell and utilities[1][2] for Microsoft Windows created by Nicole Hamilton[3] at Hamilton Laboratories as a completely original work, not based on any prior code. It was first released on OS/2 on December 12, 1988[4][5][6][7][8][9] and on Windows NT in July 1992.[10][11][12] The OS/2 version was discontinued in 2003 but the Windows version continues to be actively supported. wiki.



256: Harbour

Harbour is a modern computer programming language, primarily used to create database/business programs. It is a modernized, open sourced and cross-platform version of the older Clipper system, which in turn developed from the dBase database market of the 1980s and 90s. wiki.



257: Hartmann pipelines

CMS Pipelines implements the pipeline concept under the VM/CMS operating system. The programs in a pipeline operate on a sequential stream of records. A program writes records that are read by the next program in the pipeline. Any program can be combined with any other because reading and writing is done through a device independent interface. wiki.



258: Haskell

Haskell /hskl/[27] is a standardized, general-purpose compiled purely functional programming language, with non-strict semantics and strong static typing.[28] It is named after logician Haskell Curry.[1] The latest standard of Haskell is Haskell 2010. As of May2016[update], a group is working on the next version, Haskell 2020.[29] wiki.



259: Haxe

Haxe is a high-level cross-platform multi-paradigm programming language and compiler that can produce applications and source code, for many different computing platforms, from one code-base.[2][3][4][5] It is free and open-source software, distributed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) version 2, and the standard library under the MIT License. wiki.



260: Hermes

Hermes[1] [2] is a language for distributed programming[3] that was developed at IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center from 1986 through 1992, with an open-source compiler and run-time system.[4] Hermes' primary features included:[5] wiki.



261: High Level Assembly

High Level Assembly (HLA) is an high-level assembly language developed by Randall Hyde. It allows the use of higher-level language constructs to aid both beginners and advanced assembly developers. It fully supports advanced data types and object-oriented programming. It uses a syntax loosely based on several high-level programming languages (HLLs), such as Pascal, Ada, Modula-2, and C++, to allow creating readable assembly language programs, and to allow HLL programmers to learn HLA as fast as possible. wiki.



262: HLSL

The High-Level Shader Language[1] or High-Level Shading Language[2] (HLSL) is a proprietary shading language developed by Microsoft for the Direct3D 9 API to augment the shader assembly language, and went on to become the required shading language for the unified shader model of Direct3D 10 and higher. wiki.



263: Hop

Hop is a Lisp-like programming language by Manuel Serrano for web 2.0 and also the name of the web broker (server and proxy) that implements this language. It is written in Bigloo Scheme. It is a project funded by INRIA. wiki.



264: Hopscotch

Hopscotch is a visual programming language developed by Hopscotch Technologies, designed to allow young or beginner programmers to develop simple projects. Its simple UI allows its users to drag and drop blocks to create scripts of which can be played when activated. Although the language is easy to use, to develop more advanced pieces of code is almost impossible and requires more powerful languages. The use of the language is through an iPad or iPhone supporting Hopscotch. [1] wiki.



265: Hope

Hope is a small functional programming language developed in the 1970s at the University of Edinburgh.[1][2][3][4] It predates Miranda and Haskell and is contemporaneous with ML, also developed at the University. Hope was derived from NPL,[2] a simple functional language developed by Rod Burstall and John Darlington in their work on program transformation.[5] NPL was, in turn, derived from Kleene recursion equations. NPL and Hope are notable for being the first languages with call-by-pattern evaluation and algebraic data types.[citation needed] Hope is an important language in the development of functional programming. wiki.



266: Hugo

Interactive fiction, often abbreviated IF, is software simulating environments in which players use text commands to control characters and influence the environment. Works in this form can be understood as literary narratives, either in the form of Interactive narratives or Interactive narrations. These works can also be understood as a form of video game,[1] either in the form of an adventure game or role-playing game. In common usage, the term refers to text adventures, a type of adventure game where the entire interface can be "text-only",[2] however, Graphical text adventure games, where the text is accompanied by graphics (still images, animations or video) still fall under the text adventure category if the main way to interact with the game is by typing text. Some users of the term distinguish between interactive fiction, known as "Puzzle-free", that focuses on narrative, and "text adventures" that focus on puzzles. wiki.



267: Hume

Hume is a functionally based programming language developed at the University of St Andrews and Heriot-Watt University in Scotland since the year 2000. The language name is both an acronym meaning 'Higher-order Unified Meta-Environment' and an honorific to the 18th Century philosopher David Hume. It targets real-time embedded systems, aiming to produce a design that is both highly abstract, yet which will still allow precise extraction of time and space execution costs. This allows programmers to guarantee the bounded time and space demands of executing programs. wiki.



268: HyperTalk

HyperTalk was a high-level, procedural programming language created in 1987 by Dan Winkler and used in conjunction with Apple Computer's HyperCard hypermedia program by Bill Atkinson. Because the main target audience of HyperTalk was beginning programmers, HyperTalk programmers were usually called "authors" and the process of writing programs "scripting". HyperTalk scripts resembled written English and used a logical structure similar to that of the Pascal programming language. wiki.



269: Hexa

Numeral or number prefixes are prefixes derived from numerals or occasionally other numbers. In English and other European languages, they are used to coin numerous series of words, such as unicycle bicycle tricycle, dyad triad decade, biped quadruped, September October November December, decimal hexadecimal, sexagenarian octogenarian, centipede millipede, etc. There are two principal systems, taken from Latin and Greek, each with several subsystems; in addition, Sanskrit occupies a marginal position.[1] There is also an international set of metric prefixes, which are used in the metric system, and which for the most part are either distorted from the forms below or not based on actual number words. wiki.



270: Io

Io is a pure object-oriented programming language inspired by Smalltalk, Self, Lua, Lisp, Act1, and NewtonScript.[1] Io has a prototype-based object model similar to the ones in Self and NewtonScript, eliminating the distinction between instance and class. Like Smalltalk, everything is an object and it uses dynamic typing. Like Lisp, programs are just data trees. Io uses actors for concurrency. wiki.



271: Icon (programming language)

Icon is a very high-level programming language featuring goal-directed execution and many facilities for managing strings and textual patterns. It is related to SNOBOL and SL5, string processing languages. Icon is not object-oriented, but an object-oriented extension called Idol was developed in 1996 which eventually became Unicon. wiki.



272: IBM Basic assembly language

Basic Assembly Language (BAL) is the commonly used term for a low-level programming language used on IBM System/360 and successor mainframes. Originally "Basic Assembly Language" applied only to an extremely restricted dialect designed to run under control of IBM Basic Programming Support (BPS/360) on systems with only 8KB of main memory, and only a card reader, a card punch, and a printer for input/output thus the word "Basic". However, the full name and the initialism "BAL" almost immediately attached themselves in popular use to all assembly-language dialects on the System/360 and its descendants. BAL for BPS/360 was introduced with the System/360 in 1964. wiki.



273: IBM BASICA

The IBM Personal Computer Basic, commonly shortened to IBM BASIC, is a programming language first released by IBM with the IBM Personal Computer (model 5150) in 1981. IBM released four different versions of the Microsoft BASIC interpreter, licensed from Microsoft for the PC and PCjr. They are known as Cassette BASIC, Disk BASIC, Advanced BASIC (BASICA), and Cartridge BASIC. Versions of Disk BASIC and Advanced BASIC were included with IBM PC DOS up to PC DOS 4. In addition to the features of an ANSI standard BASIC, the IBM versions offered support for the graphics and sound hardware of the IBM PC line. Source code could be typed in with a full screen editor, and very limited facilities were provided for rudimentary program debugging. IBM also released a version of the Microsoft BASIC compiler for the PC, concurrently with the release of PC DOS 1.10 in 1982. wiki.



274: IBM HAScript

HAScript, or Host Access Script, is an IBM-developed macro language with an XML syntax designed for programmatic interaction with terminal-based applications. HAScript is based on a state machine principle. The first commercial implementation appeared in IBM's Host On-Demand in the late 1990s. wiki.



275: IBM Informix-4GL

Informix-4GL is a 4GL programming language developed by Informix during the mid-1980s. wiki.



276: IBM RPG

RPG is a high-level programming language (HLL) for business applications. RPG is an IBM proprietary programming language and its later versions are available only on IBM i- or OS/400-based systems.[1] wiki.



277: IDL

IDL, short for Interactive Data Language, is a programming language used for data analysis. It is popular in particular areas of science, such as astronomy, atmospheric physics and medical imaging. IDL shares a common syntax with PV-Wave and originated from the same codebase, though the languages have subsequently diverged in detail. There are also two free implementations, GNU Data Language (GDL) and Fawlty Language (FL). wiki.



278: J

The J programming language, developed in the early 1990s by Kenneth E. Iverson and Roger Hui,[4][5] is a synthesis of APL (also by Iverson) and the FP and FL function-level languages created by John Backus.[6] wiki.



279: J#

Visual J# (pronounced "jay-sharp") is an implementation of the J# programming language that was a transitional language for programmers of Java and Visual J++ languages, so they could use their existing knowledge and applications on .NET Framework.[1] It was introduced in 2002 and discontinued in 2007, with support for the final release of the product continuing until October, 2017. wiki.



280: J++

Visual J++ (pronounced "Jay Plus Plus") is Microsoft's discontinued implementation of Java. Syntax, keywords, and grammatical conventions were the same as Java's. Microsoft discontinued support of J++ in January 2004,[1] replacing it to a certain extent with J# and C#. wiki.



281: JADE

JADE is a proprietary object-oriented software development and deployment platform product from the New Zealand-based Jade Software Corporation, first released in 1996.[1] It consists of the JADE programming language, IDE and debugger, integrated application server and object database management system. wiki.



282: JAL

JAL (Just Another Language) is a Pascal-like programming language and compiler that generates executable code for PIC microcontrollers. It is a free-format language with a compiler that runs on Linux, MS-Windows and MS-DOS (OSX support). It is configurable and extendable through the use of libraries and can even be combined with PIC assembly language. wiki.



283: Janus (concurrent constraint programming language)

Janus is a computer programming language partially described by K. Kahn and Vijay A. Saraswat in "Actors as a special case of concurrent constraint (logic) programming", in SIGPLAN Notices, October 1990. Janus is a concurrent constraint language without backtracking. wiki.



284: Janus (time-reversible computing programming language)

Janus is a time-reversible programming language written at Caltech in 1982.[1] The operational semantics of the language were formally specified, together with a program inverter and an invertible self-interpreter, in 2007 by Tetsuo Yokoyama and Robert Glck.[2] A Janus inverter and interpreter is made freely available by the TOPPS research group at DIKU.[3] Another Janus interpreter was implemented in Prolog in 2009.[4] The below summarises the language presented in the 2007 paper. wiki.



285: JASS

JASS and JASS2 (sometimes said to stand for Just Another Scripting Syntax[citation needed]) is a scripting language provided with an event-driven API created by Blizzard Entertainment. It is used extensively by their games Warcraft III (JASS2) and StarCraft (JASS) for scripting events in the game world. Map creators can use it in the Warcraft III World Editor and the Starcraft Editor to create scripts for triggers and AI (artificial intelligence) in custom maps and campaigns. wiki.



286: Java

Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented,[15] and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers "write once, run anywhere" (WORA),[16] meaning that compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without the need for recompilation.[17] Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of computer architecture. As of 2016, Java is one of the most popular programming languages in use,[18][19][20][21] particularly for client-server web applications, with a reported 9 million developers.[22] Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since been acquired by Oracle Corporation) and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform. The language derives much of its syntax from C and C++, but it has fewer low-level facilities than either of them. wiki.



287: JavaScript

JavaScript (/dvskrpt/),[6] often abbreviated as JS, is a high-level, interpreted programming language. It is a language which is also characterized as dynamic, weakly typed, prototype-based and multi-paradigm. wiki.



288: JCL

Job Control Language (JCL) is a name for scripting languages used on IBM mainframe operating systems to instruct the system on how to run a batch job or start a subsystem.[1] wiki.



289: JEAN

JEAN was a dialect of the JOSS programming language developed for and used on ICT 1900 series computers in the late 1960s and early 1970s; it was implemented under the MINIMOP operating system. It was used at the University of Southampton. [1] wiki.



290: Join Java

Join Java is a programming language based on the join-pattern that extends the standard Java programming language with the join semantics of the join-calculus. It was written at the University of South Australia within the Reconfigurable Computing Lab by Dr. Von Itzstein. wiki.



291: JOSS

JOSS (an acronym for JOHNNIAC Open Shop System) was one of the very first interactive, time-sharing programming languages. JOSS I, developed by J. Clifford Shaw at RAND was first implemented, in beta form, on the JOHNNIAC computer in May 1963. The full implementation was deployed in January 1964, supporting five terminals and the final version, supporting ten terminals, was deployed in January 1965.[1][2] wiki.



292: Joule

Joule is a concurrent dataflow programming language, designed for building distributed applications. It is so concurrent that the order of statements within a block is irrelevant to the operation of the block. Statements are executed whenever possible, based on their inputs. Everything in Joule happens by sending messages. There is no control flow. Instead, the programmer describes the flow of data, making it a dataflow programming language. wiki.



293: JOVIAL

JOVIAL is a high-level computer programming language similar to ALGOL, specialized for the development of embedded systems (specialized computer systems designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions, usually embedded as part of a complete device including mechanical parts). wiki.



294: Joy

The Joy programming language in computer science is a purely functional programming language that was produced by Manfred von Thun of La Trobe University in Melbourne, Australia. Joy is based on composition of functions rather than lambda calculus. It has turned out to have many similarities to Forth, due not to design but to a sort of parallel evolution and convergence. It was also inspired by the function-level programming style of Backus's FP.[1] wiki.



295: JScript

JScript is Microsoft's dialect of the ECMAScript standard[2] that is used in Microsoft's Internet Explorer. wiki.



296: JScript .NET

JScript .NET is a .NET programming language developed by Microsoft. wiki.



297: JavaFX Script

JavaFX Script was a scripting language designed by Sun Microsystems, forming part of the JavaFX family of technologies on the Java Platform. wiki.



298: jq

jq is a very high-level functional programming language with support for backtracking and managing streams of JSON data. It is related to the Icon and Haskell programming languages. wiki.



299: Julia

Julia is a high-level dynamic programming language designed to address the needs of high-performance numerical analysis and computational science, without the typical need of separate compilation to be fast, while also being effective for general-purpose programming,[14][15][16][17] web use[18][19] or as a specification language.[20] wiki.



300: Jython

Jython is an implementation of the Python programming language designed to run on the Java platform. It is the successor of JPython.[3] wiki.



301: K

K is a proprietary array processing language developed by Arthur Whitney and commercialized by Kx Systems. Since then, an open-source implementation known as Kona has also been developed.[1] The language serves as the foundation for kdb+, an in-memory, column-based database, and other related financial products.[2] The language, originally developed in 1993, is a variant of APL and contains elements of Scheme. Advocates of the language emphasize its speed, facility in handling arrays, and expressive syntax.[3] wiki.



302: Kaleidoscope

The Kaleidoscope programming language is a constraint programming language embedding constraints into an imperative object-oriented language. It adds keywords always, once, and assert..during (formerly while..assert) to make statements about relational invariants. Objects have constraint constructors, which are not methods, to enforce the meanings of user-defined datatypes. wiki.



303: Karel

Karel is an educational programming language for beginners, created by Richard E. Pattis in his book Karel The Robot: A Gentle Introduction to the Art of Programming. Pattis used the language in his courses at Stanford University, California. The language is named after Karel apek, a Czech writer who introduced the word robot. wiki.



304: Karel++

Karel is an educational programming language for beginners, created by Richard E. Pattis in his book Karel The Robot: A Gentle Introduction to the Art of Programming. Pattis used the language in his courses at Stanford University, California. The language is named after Karel apek, a Czech writer who introduced the word robot. wiki.



305: KEE

IntelliCorp (IC) is a software company that provides, develops, and markets SAP application lifecycle management, business process management and data management software for SAP customers and partners. IntelliCorp applications deliver automatic intelligent impact analysis of SAP systems and are SAP Integration Certified.[1] wiki.



306: Kixtart

KiXtart is a closed source free-format scripting language for Windows. It is described as a logon script processor and enhanced batch scripting language by the official website.[2] Its name is a portmanteau of "kick start". wiki.



307: Klerer-May System

The Klerer-May System is a programming language developed in the mid-1960s, oriented to numerical scientific programming, whose most notable feature is its two-dimensional syntax based on traditional mathematical notation. wiki.



308: KIF

Knowledge Interchange Format (KIF) is a computer language designed to enable systems to share and re-use information from knowledge-based systems. KIF is similar to frame languages such as KL-One and LOOM but unlike such language its primary role is not intended as a framework for the expression or use of knowledge but rather for the interchange of knowledge between systems. The designers of KIF likened it to PostScript. PostScript was not designed primarily as a language to store and manipulate documents but rather as an interchange format for systems and devices to share documents. In the same way KIF is meant to facilitate sharing of knowledge across different systems that use different languages, formalisms, platforms, etc. wiki.



309: Kojo

Kojo is a programming language and integrated development environment (IDE) for computer programming and learning. It has many different features that enable playing, exploring, creating, and learning in the areas of computer programming, mental skills, (interactive) math, graphics, art, music, science, animation, games, and electronics. Kojo draws ideas from the programming languages Logo and Processing.[1][2] wiki.



310: Kotlin

Kotlin is a statically typed programming language that runs on the Java virtual machine and also can be compiled to JavaScript source code or use the LLVM compiler infrastructure. Its primary development is from a team of JetBrains programmers based in Saint Petersburg, Russia.[2] While the syntax is not compatible with Java, the JVM implementation of Kotlin's standard library is designed to interoperate with Java code and is reliant on Java code from the existing Java Class Library, such as the collections framework[3]. Kotlin uses aggressive type inference to determine the type of values and expressions for which type has been left unstated. This reduces language verbosity relative to Java, which demands often entirely redundant type specifications prior to version 10. wiki.



311: KRC

KRC (Kent Recursive Calculator) is a lazy functional language developed by David Turner from November 1979 to October 1981[1] based on SASL, with pattern matching, guards and ZF expressions[2] (now more usually called list comprehensions). Two implementations of KRC were written: David Turner's original one in BCPL running on EMAS, and Simon J. Croft's later one in C under Unix, and KRC was the main language used for teaching functional programming at the University of Kent at Canterbury (UK) from 1982 to 1985. wiki.



312: KRL

KRL is a knowledge representation language, developed by Daniel G. Bobrow and Terry Winograd while at Xerox PARC and Stanford University, respectively. It is a frame-based language. wiki.



313: KUKA

KUKA is a German manufacturer of industrial robots and solutions for factory automation. The KUKA Robotics Corporation has 25 subsidiaries worldwide, mostly sales and service subsidiaries, including in the United States, Australia, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, India, Russia[2] and most European countries. The company name, KUKA, is an acronym for Keller und Knappich Augsburg. wiki.



314: KRYPTON

Krypton (styled KRYPTON) is a frame-based computer programming language. wiki.



315: ksh

KornShell (ksh) is a Unix shell which was developed by David Korn at Bell Labs in the early 1980s and announced at USENIX on July 14, 1983.[1][2] The initial development was based on Bourne shell source code.[7] Other early contributors were Bell Labs developers Mike Veach and Pat Sullivan, who wrote the Emacs and vi-style line editing modes' code, respectively.[8] KornShell is backward-compatible with the Bourne shell and includes many features of the C shell, inspired by the requests of Bell Labs users. wiki.



316: Kodu

Kodu, originally named Boku, is a programming integrated development environment (IDE) by Microsoft's FUSE Labs. It runs on Xbox 360 and Microsoft Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8 and Windows 10. It was released on the Xbox Live Marketplace on June 30, 2009.[2] A Windows version is available to the general public for download from Microsoft's FUSE web portal.[3] wiki.



317: L

Multiple programming languages are named L, including: wiki.



318: LabVIEW

Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW)[1]:3 is a system-design platform and development environment for a visual programming language from National Instruments. wiki.



319: Ladder

Ladder logic was originally a written method to document the design and construction of relay racks as used in manufacturing and process control.[1] Each device in the relay rack would be represented by a symbol on the ladder diagram with connections between those devices shown. In addition, other items external to the relay rack such as pumps, heaters, and so forth would also be shown on the ladder diagram. wiki.



320: Lagoona

Lagoona is an experimental programming language developed by Michael Franz, a former student of Niklaus Wirth. It explores component-oriented programming with the use of stand-alone messages and message sets, message forwarding, and by de-emphasizing classes. wiki.



321: LANSA

LANSA is an integrated development environment (IDE) for building desktop, web and mobile software applications that can be deployed to Cloud, Windows, Linux and IBM i server platforms. wiki.



322: Lasso

Lasso is an application server and server management interface used to develop internet applications and is a general-purpose, high-level programming language. Originally a web datasource connection tool,[1] for Filemaker and later included in Apple Computer's FileMaker 4.0 and Claris Homepage as CDML,[2][3] it has since evolved into a complex language used to develop and serve large-scale internet applications and web pages. wiki.



323: LaTeX

LaTeX (/ltx/ LAH-tekh or /letx/ LAY-tekh;[1] a shortening of Lamport TeX) is a document preparation system.[2] When writing, the writer uses plain text as opposed to the formatted text found in WYSIWYG ("what you see is what you get") word processors like Microsoft Word, LibreOffice Writer and Apple Pages. The writer uses markup tagging conventions to define the general structure of a document (such as article, book, and letter), to stylise text throughout a document (such as bold and italics), and to add citations and cross-references. A TeX distribution such as TeX Live or MikTeX is used to produce an output file (such as PDF or DVI) suitable for printing or digital distribution. Within the typesetting system, its name is stylised as LaTeX. wiki.



324: Lava

Lava is an experimental, visual object-oriented, interpreter-based programming language with an associated programming environment (Lava Programming Environment or LavaPE) that uses structure editors instead of text editors. Only comments, constants, and new identifiers may be entered as text. wiki.



325: LC-3

Little Computer 3, or LC-3, is a type of computer educational programming language, an assembly language, which is a type of low-level programming language. wiki.



326: Leda

Leda is a multiparadigm programming language whose goal is to successfully mix imperative, object-oriented, functional, and logic-based programming features into one language. wiki.



327: Legoscript

Lego Mindstorms is a hardware software platform produced by Lego for the development of programmable robots based on Lego building blocks. Each version of the system includes an intelligent brick computer that controls the system, a set of modular sensors and motors, and Lego parts from the Technic line to create the mechanical systems. wiki.



328: LIL

LIL, the Little Implementation Language, was a system programming language during the early days of Unix history on PDP-11 machines. It was written by P. J. Plauger of Bell Labs. wiki.



329: LilyPond

LilyPond is a computer program and file format for music engraving. One of LilyPond's major goals is to produce scores that are engraved with traditional layout rules, reflecting the era when scores were engraved by hand. wiki.



330: Limbo

Limbo is a programming language for writing distributed systems and is the language used to write applications for the Inferno operating system. It was designed at Bell Labs by Sean Dorward, Phil Winterbottom, and Rob Pike. wiki.



331: Limnor

Limnor is a generic-purpose codeless and visual programming system. The aim is to enable users to create computer software without directly coding in a texture programming language. It can be extended by software developers. wiki.



332: LINC

LINC ("Logic and Information Network Compiler") is a fourth-generation programming language, used mostly on Unisys computer systems. wiki.



333: Lingo

Lingo is a verbose object-oriented (OO) scripting language developed by John H. Thompson for use in Adobe Director (formerly Macromedia Director). Lingo is used to develop desktop application software, interactive kiosks, CD-ROMs and Adobe Shockwave content.[1][2] wiki.



334: LIS

LIS (Language d'Implementation de Systmes) was a system implementation programming language designed by Jean Ichbiah, who later designed Ada. wiki.



335: LISA

LISA (Language for Instruction Set Architectures) is a language to describe the instruction set architecture of a processor. LISA captures the information required to generate software tools (compiler, assembler, instruction set simulator, ...) and implementation hardware (in VHDL or Verilog) of a given processor. wiki.



336: Lisaac

Lisaac is a statically typed prototype-based language conceived by Benot Sonntag, in which the Isaac operating system is being written. wiki.



337: Lisp

Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation.[3] Originally specified in 1958, Lisp is the second-oldest high-level programming language in widespread use today. Only Fortran is older, by one year.[4][5] Lisp has changed since its early days, and many dialects have existed over its history. Today, the best known general-purpose Lisp dialects are Common Lisp and Scheme. wiki.



338: Lite-C

Lite-C is a programming language for multimedia applications and personal computer games, using a syntax subset of the C language with some elements of the C++ language. Its main difference to C is the native implementation of multimedia and computer game related objects like sounds, images, movies, GUI elements, 2D and 3D models, collision detection and rigid body physics. Lite-C executables are compiled instead of interpreted. Lite-C runs on 32-bit and 64-bit Windows XP or Vista operating systems. wiki.



339: Lithe

Lithe is an experimental programming language created in 1982 by David Sandberg at the University of Washington which allows the programmer to freely choose their own syntax. Lithe combines the ideas of syntax-directed translation and classes in a novel manner that results in a remarkably simple yet powerful language. wiki.



340: Little b

Little b is a domain-specific programming language, more specifically, a modeling language, designed to build modular mathematical models of biological systems. It was designed and authored by Aneil Mallavarapu. Little b is being developed in the Virtual Cell Program at Harvard Medical School, headed by mathematician Jeremy Gunawardena. wiki.



341: LLL

Ethereum is an open-source, public, blockchain-based distributed computing platform and operating system featuring smart contract (scripting) functionality.[3] It supports a modified version of Nakamoto consensus via transaction based state transitions. wiki.





343: Logtalk

Logtalk is an object-oriented logic programming language that extends and leverages the Prolog language with a feature set suitable for programming in the large.[1] It provides support for encapsulation and data hiding, separation of concerns and enhanced code reuse.[1] Logtalk uses standard Prolog syntax with the addition of a few operators and directives. wiki.



344: LotusScript

LotusScript is an object oriented programming language used by Lotus Notes (since version 4.0) and other IBM Lotus Software products. wiki.



345: LPC

LPC (short for Lars Pensj C) is an object-oriented programming language derived from C[1] and developed originally by Lars Pensj to facilitate MUD building on LPMuds.[2][3] Though designed for game development, its flexibility has led to it being used for a variety of purposes, and to its evolution into the language Pike.[3] wiki.



346: LSE

LSE (French: Langage symbolique d'enseignement) is a programming language developed at Suplec in the late 1970s/early 1980s.[1][2][3] It is similar to BASIC, except with French-language instead of English-language keywords. It was derived from an earlier language called LSD, also developed at Suplec. It is most commonly said to be an acronym for Langage Symbolique d'Enseignement (Symbolic Teaching Language), but other expansions are also known (e.g. Langage de Sup-lec, or the more cynical Langage Sans Espoir (hopeless language)). wiki.



347: LSL

Second Life is an online virtual world, developed and owned by the San Francisco-based firm Linden Lab and launched on June 23, 2003. By 2013, Second Life had approximately one million regular users.[1] In many ways, Second Life is similar to massively multiplayer online role-playing games; however, Linden Lab is emphatic that their creation is not a game: "There is no manufactured conflict, no set objective".[2] wiki.



348: LiveCode

LiveCode (formerly Revolution and MetaCard[1]) is a cross-platform[2] rapid application development runtime environment inspired by HyperCard. It features the Transcript (formerly MetaTalk) programming language which belongs to the family of xTalk scripting languages like HyperCard's HyperTalk.[3][4] wiki.



349: LiveScript

LiveScript is a functional language that compiles to JavaScript. It was created by Jeremy Ashkenasthe creator of CoffeeScriptalong with Satoshi Muramaki, George Zahariev, and many others.[2] Notably, LiveScript was briefly the name of JavaScript in 1990s.[3] wiki.



350: Lua

Lua (/lu/ LOO-; from Portuguese: lua [lu.(w)] meaning moon) is a lightweight, multi-paradigm programming language designed primarily for embedded use in applications.[2] Lua is cross-platform, since the interpreter is written in ANSI C,[3] and has a relatively simple C API.[4] wiki.



351: Lucid

Lucid is a dataflow programming language designed to experiment with non-von Neumann programming models. It was designed by Bill Wadge and Ed Ashcroft and described in the 1985 book Lucid, the Dataflow Programming Language.[1] wiki.



352: Lustre

Lustre is a formally defined, declarative, and synchronous dataflow programming language for programming reactive systems. It began as a research project in the early 1980s. A formal presentation of the language can be found in the 1991 Proceedings of the IEEE.[1] In 1993 it progressed to practical, industrial use in a commercial product as the core language of the industrial environment SCADE, developed by Esterel Technologies. It is now used for critical control software in aircraft,[2] helicopters, and nuclear power plants. wiki.



353: LYaPAS

LYaPAS (Russian: , short for "Logical Language for the Representation of Synthesis Algorithms") is a programming language created in the Soviet Union in 1964 by Arkady D.Zakrevskij of the Laboratory of System Programming and Logical Synthesis of the BSSR Academy of Sciences. wiki.



354: Lynx

Lynx is a programming language for large distributed networks, using remote procedure calls. It was developed by the University of WisconsinMadison in 1984 for the Charlotte multicomputer operating system. wiki.



355: M (alternative name for the MUMPS programming language)

MUMPS (Massachusetts General Hospital Utility Multi-Programming System), or M, is a general-purpose computer programming language that provides ACID (Atomic, Consistent, Isolated, and Durable) transaction processing. Its differentiating feature is its "built-in" database, enabling high-level access to disk storage using simple symbolic program variables and subscripted arrays, similar to the variables used by most languages to access main memory. wiki.



356: M2000

The Dassault Mirage 2000 is a French multirole, single-engine fourth-generation jet fighter manufactured by Dassault Aviation. It was designed in the late 1970s as a lightweight fighter to replace the Mirage III for the French Air Force (Arme de l'Air). The Mirage 2000 evolved into a multirole aircraft with several variants developed, with sales to a number of nations. It was later developed into the Mirage 2000N and 2000D strike variants, the improved Mirage 2000-5 and several export variants. Over 600 aircraft were built and it has been in service with nine nations. wiki.



357: M2001

M2001 is a modular educational mathematical programming language for developing and presenting mathematical algorithms, from the modern discrete to the classical continuous mathematics. M2001 is built on a semantic framework that is based in category theory and has a syntax similar to that of Pascal or Modula-2. wiki.



358: M4

m4 is a general-purpose macro processor included in all UNIX-like operating systems, and is a component of the POSIX standard. wiki.



359: M#

M# (pronounced em sharp) is a code generation tool that is being marketed as a Domain-specific language that can be used to create Websites and Web Applications and its main goal is to reduce the time necessary for creating these by hand.[1] M# "language" acts as a Code generator and translates entities and page definitions to ASP.NET Web Forms and C# code which in turn form the User interface and Business logic layer of the application. wiki.



360: Machine code

Machine code or machine language is a set of instructions executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU). Each instruction performs a very specific task, such as a load, a jump, or an ALU operation on a unit of data in a CPU register or memory. Every program directly executed by a CPU is made up of a series of such instructions. (The phrase 'directly executed' needs some clarification; machine code is by definition the lowest level of programming detail visible to the programmer, but internally many processors use microcode or optimise and transform machine code instructions into sequences of micro-ops in a sophisticated way.) wiki.



361: MAD

MAD (Michigan Algorithm Decoder) is a programming language and compiler for the IBM 704 and later the IBM 709, IBM 7090, IBM 7040, UNIVAC 1107, UNIVAC 1108, Philco 210-211, and eventually the IBM S/370 mainframe computers. Developed in 1959 at the University of Michigan by Bernard Galler, Bruce Arden and Robert M. Graham, MAD is a variant of the ALGOL language. It was widely used to teach programming at colleges and universities during the 1960s and played a minor role in the development of CTSS, Multics, and the Michigan Terminal System computer operating systems.[1] wiki.



362: MAD/I

MAD (Michigan Algorithm Decoder) is a programming language and compiler for the IBM 704 and later the IBM 709, IBM 7090, IBM 7040, UNIVAC 1107, UNIVAC 1108, Philco 210-211, and eventually the IBM S/370 mainframe computers. Developed in 1959 at the University of Michigan by Bernard Galler, Bruce Arden and Robert M. Graham, MAD is a variant of the ALGOL language. It was widely used to teach programming at colleges and universities during the 1960s and played a minor role in the development of CTSS, Multics, and the Michigan Terminal System computer operating systems.[1] wiki.



363: Magik

Magik is an object-oriented programming language that supports multiple inheritance and polymorphism, and it is dynamically typed. It was designed and implemented in 1989 by Arthur Chance of Smallworld Systems Ltd. as part of Smallworld Geographical Information System (GIS). Following Smallworld's acquisition in 2000, Magik is now is provided by GE Energy, still as part of its Smallworld technology platform. wiki.



364: Magma

Magma is a computer algebra system designed to solve problems in algebra, number theory, geometry and combinatorics. It is named after the algebraic structure magma. It runs on Unix-like operating systems, as well as Windows. wiki.



365: make

In software development, Make is a build automation tool that automatically builds executable programs and libraries from source code by reading files called Makefiles which specify how to derive the target program. Though integrated development environments and language-specific compiler features can also be used to manage a build process, Make remains widely used, especially in Unix and Unix-like operating systems. wiki.



366: Maude system

The Maude system is an implementation of rewriting logic developed at SRI International. It is similar in its general approach to Joseph Goguen's OBJ3 implementation of equational logic, but based on rewriting logic rather than order-sorted equational logic, and with a heavy emphasis on powerful metaprogramming based on reflection. wiki.



367: Maple

Maple is a symbolic and numeric computing environment, and is also a multi-paradigm programming language. wiki.



368: MAPPER

MAPPER (MAintain, Prepare, and Produce Executive Reports) is a database management and processing system. It is a software tool that enables end-users to share computer power in a corporation. Users are able to develop their own applications and process them interactively. The product has a number of unique characteristics that may appear technically impossible to persons unfamiliar with its method of operation. wiki.



369: MARK-IV

MARK IV is a Fourth-generation programming language that was created by Informatics, Inc. in the 1960s. Informatics took advantage of IBM's decision to unbundle their software; MARK IV was the first "software product to have cumulative sales of $10 million". wiki.



370: Mary

Mary was a programming language designed and implemented by RUNIT at Trondheim, Norway in the 1970s. It borrowed many features from ALGOL 68 but was designed for machine-oriented programming. wiki.



371: MASM Microsoft Assembly x86

The Microsoft Macro Assembler (MASM) is an x86 assembler that uses the Intel syntax for MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows. Beginning with MASM 8.0 there are two versions of the assembler - one for 16-bit and 32-bit assembly sources, and another (ML64) for 64-bit sources only. wiki.



372: MATH-MATIC

MATH-MATIC is the marketing name for the AT-3 (Algebraic Translator 3) compiler, an early programming language for the UNIVAC I and UNIVAC II. wiki.



373: Mathematica

Wolfram Mathematica (usually termed Mathematica) is a modern technical computing system spanning all areas of technical computingincluding neural networks, machine learning, image processing, geometry, data science, visualizations, and others. The system is used in many technical, scientific, engineering, mathematical, and computing fields. It was conceived by Stephen Wolfram and is developed by Wolfram Research of Champaign, Illinois.[7][8] The Wolfram Language is the programming language used in Mathematica.[9] wiki.



374: MATLAB

MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment. A proprietary programming language developed by MathWorks, MATLAB allows matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data, implementation of algorithms, creation of user interfaces, and interfacing with programs written in other languages, including C, C++, C#, Java, Fortran and Python. wiki.



375: Maxima

Maxima is a computer algebra system (CAS) based on a 1982 version of Macsyma. It is written in Common Lisp and runs on all POSIX platforms such as macOS, Unix, BSD, and Linux, as well as under Microsoft Windows and Android. It is free software released under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL). wiki.



376: Macsyma

Macsyma (Project MACs SYmbolic MAnipulator[1]) is one of the oldest general purpose computer algebra systems which is still widely used. It was originally developed from 1968 to 1982 at MIT's Project MAC. wiki.



377: Max

Max is a visual programming language for music and multimedia developed and maintained by San Francisco-based software company Cycling '74. During its history, it has been used by composers, performers, software designers, researchers, and artists to create recordings, performances, and installations. wiki.



378: MaxScript

Autodesk 3ds Max, formerly 3D Studio and 3D Studio Max, is a professional 3D computer graphics program for making 3D animations, models, games and images. It is developed and produced by Autodesk Media and Entertainment.[1] It has modeling capabilities and a flexible plugin architecture and can be used on the Microsoft Windows platform. It is frequently used by video game developers, many TV commercial studios and architectural visualization studios. It is also used for movie effects and movie pre-visualization. For its modeling and animation tools, the latest version[which?] of 3ds Max also features shaders (such as ambient occlusion and subsurface scattering), dynamic simulation, particle systems, radiosity, normal map creation and rendering, global illumination, a customizable user interface, new icons, and its own scripting language.[2] wiki.



379: Maya (MEL)

The Maya Embedded Language (MEL) is a scripting language used to simplify tasks in Autodesk's 3D Graphics Software Maya. Most tasks that can be achieved through Maya's GUI can be achieved with MEL, as well as certain tasks that are not available from the GUI. MEL offers a method of speeding up complicated or repetitive tasks, as well as allowing users to redistribute a specific set of commands to others that may find it useful. wiki.



380: MDL

MDL (the MIT Design Language) is a descendant of the Lisp programming language. Its initial purpose was to provide high level language support for the Dynamic Modeling Group at MIT's Project MAC. It was initially developed in 1971 on the PDP-10 computer under the Incompatible Timesharing System. The initial development team consisted of Gerald Sussman and Carl Hewitt of the Artificial Intelligence Lab, and Chris Reeve, Bruce Daniels, and David Cressey of the Dynamic Modeling Group. Later, Stu Galley, also of the Dynamic Modeling Group, wrote the MDL documentation.[citation needed] wiki.



381: Mercury

Mercury is a functional logic programming language made for real-world uses. The first version was developed at the University of Melbourne, Computer Science department, by Fergus Henderson, Thomas Conway, and Zoltan Somogyi, under Somogyi's supervision, and released on April 8, 1995. wiki.



382: Mesa

Mesa[1] is a programming language developed in the late 1970s at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center in Palo Alto, California, United States. The language name was a pun based upon the programming language catchphrases of the time, because Mesa is a "high level" programming language. wiki.



383: Metafont

Metafont is a description language used to define raster fonts. It is also the name of the interpreter that executes Metafont code, generating the bitmap fonts that can be embedded into e.g. PostScript. Metafont was devised by Donald Knuth as a counterpart to his TeX typesetting system. wiki.



384: MetaQuotes Language (MQL4/MQL5)

MQL4 (MetaQuotes Language 4) and MQL5 (MetaQuotes Language 5) are integrated programming languages designed for developing trading robots, technical market indicators, scripts and function libraries within the MetaTrader software. wiki.



385: MHEG-5 (Interactive TV programming language)

MHEG-5, or ISO/IEC 13522-5,[1] is part of a set of international standards relating to the presentation of multimedia information, standardised by the Multimedia and Hypermedia Experts Group (MHEG). It is most commonly used as a language to describe interactive television services. wiki.



386: Microcode

A microassembler is a computer program that helps prepare a microprogram, called firmware, to control the low level operation of a computer in much the same way an assembler helps prepare higher level code for a processor. The difference is that the microprogram is usually only developed by the processor manufacturer and works intimately with the computer hardware. On a microprogrammed computer the microprogram implements the operations of the instruction set in which any normal program (including both application programs and operating systems) is written. The use of a microprogram allows the manufacturer to fix certain mistakes, including working around hardware design errors, without modifying the hardware. Another means of employing microassembler-generated microprograms is in allowing the same hardware to run different instruction sets. After it is assembled, the microprogram is then loaded to a control store to become part of the logic of a CPU's control unit. wiki.



387: MicroScript

TRON (acronym for The Real-time Operating system Nucleus) is an open architecture real-time operating system kernel design. The project was started by Prof. Dr. Ken Sakamura of the University of Tokyo in 1984. The project's goal is to create an ideal computer architecture and network, to provide for all of society's needs.[1] wiki.



388: MIIS

MIIS (Meditech Interpretive Information System) is a MUMPS-like programming language that was created by A.Neil Pappalardo and Curt W. Marble, on a DEC PDP at Mass General Hospital from 1964 to 1968. MUMPS evolution took two major directions: MUMPS proper and MIIS. MUMPS became an ANSI and ISO-standard language. When many MUMPS implementations standardized to be compatible, MIIS did not standardize, but became a proprietary system instead. wiki.



389: Milk (programming language)

Milk is a programming language "that lets application developers manage memory more efficiently in programs that deal with scattered data points in large data sets."[1] wiki.



390: MIMIC

MIMIC, known in capitalized form only, is a former simulation computer language developed 1964 by H. E. Petersen, F. J. Sansom and L. M. Warshawsky of Systems Engineering Group within the Air Force Materiel Command at the Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, Ohio, United States.[1] It is an expression-oriented continuous block simulation language, but capable of incorporating blocks of FORTRAN-like algebra. wiki.



391: Mirah

Mirah (formerly Duby) is a programming language based on Ruby language syntax, local type inference, hybrid staticdynamic type system, and a pluggable compiler toolchain. Mirah was created by Charles Oliver Nutter to be "a 'Ruby-like' language, probably a subset of Ruby syntax, that [could] compile to solid, fast, idiomatic JVM bytecode."[1] The word mirah refers to the gemstone ruby in the Javanese language, a play on the concept of Ruby in Java.[2] wiki.



392: Miranda

Miranda is a lazy, purely functional programming language designed by David Turner as a successor to his earlier programming languages SASL and KRC, using some concepts from ML and Hope. It was produced by Research Software Ltd. of England (which holds a trademark on the name Miranda) and was the first purely functional language to be commercially supported.[citation needed] wiki.



393: MIVA Script

Miva Script is a proprietary computer scripting language mainly used for internet applications such as e-commerce. As of 2015, it is developed, maintained and owned by Miva Merchant, Inc., based in San Diego, California. Many web hosting companies support Miva Script on their servers, but it is significantly less widespread than other popular web languages. wiki.



394: ML

ML (Meta Language) is a general-purpose functional programming language. It has roots in Lisp, and has been characterized as "Lisp with types". It is known for its use of the polymorphic HindleyMilner type system, which automatically assigns the types of most expressions without requiring explicit type annotations, and ensures type safety there is a formal proof that a well-typed ML program does not cause runtime type errors.[1] ML provides pattern matching for function arguments, garbage collection, imperative programming, call-by-value and currying. It is used heavily in programming language research and is one of the few languages to be completely specified and verified using formal semantics. Its types and pattern matching make it well-suited and commonly used to operate on other formal languages, such as in compiler writing, automated theorem proving and formal verification. wiki.



395: Model 204

Model 204 is a database management system for IBM and compatible mainframe computers, born 1965 October 13,[1]:66[2] and first deployed in 1972. It incorporates a programming language and an environment for application development. Implemented in assembly language[2] for IBM System/360 and its successors, M204 can deal with very large databases[citation needed] and transaction loads of 1000 TPS.[1]:4 wiki.



396: Modelica

Modelica is an object-oriented, declarative, multi-domain modeling language for component-oriented modeling of complex systems, e.g., systems containing mechanical, electrical, electronic, hydraulic, thermal, control, electric power or process-oriented subcomponents. The free Modelica language[1] is developed by the non-profit Modelica Association.[2] The Modelica Association also develops the free Modelica Standard Library[3] that contains about 1360 generic model components and 1280 functions in various domains, as of version 3.2.1. wiki.



397: Modula

The Modula programming language is a descendant of the Pascal programming language. It was developed in Switzerland in the 1970s by Niklaus Wirth, the same person who designed Pascal. The main innovation of Modula over Pascal is a module system, used for grouping sets of related declarations into program units; hence the name Modula. The language is defined in a report by Wirth called Modula. A language for modular multiprogramming published 1976.[1] wiki.



398: Modula-2

Modula-2 is a computer programming language designed and developed between 1977 and 1985 by Niklaus Wirth at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETH Zurich) as a revision of Pascal to serve as the sole programming language for the operating system and application software for the personal workstation Lilith.[1] The principal concepts were: wiki.



399: Modula-3

Modula-3 is a programming language conceived as a successor to an upgraded version of Modula-2 known as Modula-2+. While it has been influential in research circles (influencing the designs of languages such as Java, C#, and Python) it has not been adopted widely in industry. It was designed by Luca Cardelli, James Donahue, Lucille Glassman, Mick Jordan (before at the Olivetti Software Technology Laboratory), Bill Kalsow and Greg Nelson at the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) Systems Research Center (SRC) and the Olivetti Research Center (ORC) in the late 1980s. wiki.



400: Mohol

Mohol refers to Machine Oriented High Order Languages in Dijkstra's terminology. wiki.



401: MOO

The MOO programming language is a relatively simple programming language used to support the MOO Server. It is dynamically typed and uses a prototype-based object-oriented system, with syntax roughly derived from the Algol school of programming languages. wiki.



402: Mortran

Mortran (More Fortran) is an extension of the Fortran programming language used for scientific computation. It introduces syntax changes, including the use of semicolons to end statements, in order to improve readability and flexibility. Mortran code is macro-processed into Fortran code for compilation. wiki.



403: Mouse

The Mouse programming language is a small computer programming language developed by Dr. Peter Grogono in the late 1970s and early 1980s.[1][2][3] It was developed as an extension of an earlier language called MUSYS, which was used to control digital and analog devices in an electronic music studio. wiki.



404: MPD

Multithreaded, Parallel, and Distributed programming (MPD) is a concurrent programming language whose syntax is derived from the one used in the book Foundations of Multithreaded, Parallel, and Distributed Programming The name thus lists the distinguishing features of the language, namely that it supports all three of these concurrent programming techniques. wiki.



405: Mathcad

Mathcad is computer software primarily intended for the verification, validation, documentation and re-use of engineering calculations.[4] First introduced in 1986 on DOS, it was the first to introduce live editing of typeset mathematical notation, combined with its automatic computations. wiki.



406: CIL

Common Intermediate Language (CIL), formerly called Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL), is the lowest-level human-readable programming language defined by the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) specification and is used by the .NET Framework, .NET Core, and Mono. Languages which target a CLI-compatible runtime environment compile to CIL, which is assembled into an object code that has a bytecode-style format. CIL is an object-oriented assembly language, and is entirely stack-based. Its bytecode is translated into native code ormost commonlyexecuted by a virtual machine. wiki.



407: MSL

The mIRC scripting language, often unofficially abbreviated to "mSL"[citation needed], is the scripting language embedded in mIRC, an IRC client for Windows. wiki.



408: MUMPS

MUMPS (Massachusetts General Hospital Utility Multi-Programming System), or M, is a general-purpose computer programming language that provides ACID (Atomic, Consistent, Isolated, and Durable) transaction processing. Its differentiating feature is its "built-in" database, enabling high-level access to disk storage using simple symbolic program variables and subscripted arrays, similar to the variables used by most languages to access main memory. wiki.



409: MuPAD

MuPAD is a computer algebra system (CAS). Originally developed by the MuPAD research group at the University of Paderborn, Germany, development was taken over by the company SciFace Software GmbH & Co. KG in cooperation with the MuPAD research group and partners from some other universities starting in 1997. wiki.



410: Mutan

Ethereum is an open-source, public, blockchain-based distributed computing platform and operating system featuring smart contract (scripting) functionality.[3] It supports a modified version of Nakamoto consensus via transaction based state transitions. wiki.



411: Mystic Programming Language

Mystic BBS is a bulletin board system software program that began in 1995 and was first released to the public in December 1997 under the MS-DOS platform. It has since been ported to Microsoft Windows, OS/2, OS X, and Linux (Intel and ARM based systems such as the Raspberry Pi). Mystic was designed to be a spiritual successor to the Telegard and Renegade bulletin board systems. wiki.



412: NASM

The Netwide Assembler (NASM) is an assembler and disassembler for the Intel x86 architecture. It can be used to write 16-bit, 32-bit (IA-32) and 64-bit (x86-64) programs. NASM is considered to be one of the most popular assemblers for Linux.[1] wiki.



413: Napier88

Napier88 is an orthogonally persistent programming language that was designed and implemented at the University of St Andrews, Scotland. The primary designer was Ron Morrison, whose initial designs were extended and implemented by Fred Brown, Richard Connor, and Al Dearle. Napier88 was ahead of its time in many ways, and was the first robustly implemented language to combine a polymorphic type system with orthogonal persistence. The language was robustly implemented and released to users from both industry and academia; up to 1,000 registered users were recorded in due course. The language, however, was only intended to provide a proof of concept for an experiment in persistent programming; some time after 1989 (the year the first implementation was in fact released) the group's interests moved on and the language was no longer maintained. wiki.



414: Neko

Neko is a high-level dynamically typed programming language developed by Nicolas Cannasse as part of research and development (R&D) efforts at two indie video game firms in Bordeaux, France: first at Motion Twin and then at Shiro Games. wiki.



415: Nemerle

Nemerle is a general-purpose high-level statically typed programming language designed for platforms using the Common Language Infrastructure (.NET/Mono). It offers functional, object-oriented (OO) and imperative features. It has a simple C#-like syntax and a powerful metaprogramming system. In June 2012, the core developers of Nemerle were hired by the Czech software development company JetBrains. The team is focusing on developing Nitra, a framework to implement extant and new programming languages. This framework will likely be used to create future versions of Nemerle.[2][3][4] wiki.



416: nesC

nesC (pronounced "NES-see") is a component-based, event-driven programming language used to build applications for the TinyOS platform. TinyOS is an operating environment designed to run on embedded devices used in distributed wireless sensor networks. nesC is built as an extension to the C programming language with components "wired" together to run applications on TinyOS. The name nesC is an abbreviation of "network embedded systems C". wiki.



417: NESL

NESL is a parallel programming language developed at Carnegie Mellon by the SCandAL project and released in 1993. It integrates various ideas from parallel algorithms, and functional programming and array programming languages. wiki.



418: Net.Data

Net.Data is a programming language by IBM used largely for database-backed web applications.[1] wiki.





420: NetRexx

NetRexx is an open source, originally IBM's, variant of the REXX programming language to run on the Java virtual machine.[3] It supports a classic REXX syntax, with no reserved keywords, along with considerable additions to support object-oriented programming in a manner compatible with Java's object model, yet can be used as both a compiled and an interpreted language, with an option of using only data types native to the JVM or the NetRexx runtime package. The latter offers the standard Rexx data type that combines string processing with unlimited precision decimal arithmetic. wiki.



421: NewLISP

newLISP is an open source scripting language in the Lisp family of programming languages developed by Lutz Mueller[2] and released under the GNU General Public License. wiki.



422: NEWP

NEWP (or the New Executive Programming Language) is a high-level programming language used on the Unisys MCP systems. The language is used to write the operating system and other system utilities, although it can also be used to write user software as well. Several constructs separate it from extended ALGOL on which it is based. Language operators such as MEMORY which allows direct memory access are strictly used by programs running as the MCP.[1] wiki.



423: Newspeak

Newspeak is a programming language and platform in the tradition of Smalltalk and Self being developed by a team led by Gilad Bracha. The platform includes an IDE, a GUI library, and standard libraries.[1] Starting in 2006, Cadence Design Systems funded its development and employed the main contributors, but ceased funding in January 2009.[2] wiki.



424: NewtonScript

NewtonScript is a prototype-based programming language created to write programs for the Newton platform.[1] It is heavily influenced by the Self programming language, but modified to be more suited to needs of mobile and embedded devices.[2] wiki.



425: Nial

Nial (from "Nested Interactive Array Language") is a high-level array programming language developed from about 1981 by Mike Jenkins of Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Jenkins co-created the JenkinsTraub algorithm. wiki.



426: Nice

Nice is an object-oriented programming language released under the GNU General Public License. wiki.



427: Nickle

Nickle is a numeric oriented programming language by Keith Packard and Bart Massey. Originally used for desktop calculation, it has since expanded for prototyping of complicated algorithms. wiki.



428: NITIN

Nickle is a numeric oriented programming language by Keith Packard and Bart Massey. Originally used for desktop calculation, it has since expanded for prototyping of complicated algorithms. wiki.



429: Nim

Nim (formerly named Nimrod) is an imperative, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language[7] designed and developed by Andreas Rumpf. It is designed to be "efficient, expressive, and elegant",[8] supporting metaprogramming, functional, message passing,[5] procedural, and object-oriented programming styles by providing several features such as compile time code generation, algebraic data types, a foreign function interface (FFI) with C and compiling to JavaScript, C and C++. wiki.



430: NPL

Nord Programming Language, commonly abbreviated NPL, was a programming language by the Norwegian minicomputer manufacturer Norsk Data. It shipped as a standard component of the operating system SINTRAN III. wiki.



431: Not eXactly C

Not eXactly C, or NXC, is a high-level programming language for the Lego Mindstorms NXT designed by John Hansen in 2006. NXC, which is short for Not eXactly C, is based on Next Byte Codes, an assembly language. NXC has a syntax like C. The IDE for NXC is the Bricx Command Center. wiki.



432: Not Quite C

Not Quite C (NQC) is a programming language, application programming interface (API), and native bytecode compiler toolkit for the Lego Mindstorms, Cybermaster and LEGO Spybotics systems. It is based primarily on the C language but has specific limitations, such as the maximum number of subroutines and variables allowed, which differ depending on the version of firmware the RCX has. The language was invented by David Baum. He has released two books on the subject. wiki.



433: NSIS

Nullsoft Scriptable Install System (NSIS) is a script-driven installer authoring tool for Microsoft Windows with minimal overhead backed by Nullsoft, the creators of Winamp. NSIS is released under a combination of free software licenses, primarily the zlib license.[2] It has become a widely used alternative to commercial proprietary products like InstallShield, with users including Amazon.com, Dropbox, Google, Ubisoft, FL Studio, BitTorrent, and McAfee.[3] wiki.



434: Nu

Nu is an interpreted object-oriented programming language, with a Lisp-like syntax, created by Tim Burks as an alternative scripting language to program OS X through its Cocoa application programming interface (API). Implementations also exist for iPhone and Linux. wiki.



435: NWScript

NWScript is the scripting language developed by BioWare for the role-playing video game Neverwinter Nights. It is based on the C programming language and is implemented in the Aurora toolset. Neverscript, an open source 3rd party editor, has been created for the Mac OS X and Linux versions of NWN because the Aurora toolset has not been ported to those platforms. wiki.



436: NXT-G

LEGO Mindstorms NXT is a programmable robotics kit released by Lego in late July 2006.[1] It replaced the first-generation Lego Mindstorms kit, which was called the Robotics Invention System. The base kit ships in two versions: the Retail Version (set #8527)[2] and the Education Base Set (set #9797).[3] It comes with the NXT-G programming software, or optionally LabVIEW for Lego Mindstorms.[4] A variety of unofficial languages exist, such as NXC, NBC, leJOS NXJ, and RobotC. The second generation of the set, the Lego Mindstorms NXT 2.0, was released on August 1, 2009, featuring a color sensor and other upgraded capabilities. The third generation, the EV3, was released in September 2013. wiki.



437: o:XML

o:XML is an open source, dynamically typed, general-purpose object-oriented programming language based on XML-syntax. It has threads, exception handling, regular expressions and namespaces. Additionally o:XML has an expression language very similar to XPath that allows functions to be invoked on nodes and node sets. wiki.



438: Oak

Oak is a discontinued programming language created by James Gosling in 1991, initially for Sun Microsystems' set-top box project. The language later evolved to become Java. wiki.



439: Oberon

Oberon is a general-purpose programming language created in 1986 by Niklaus Wirth and the latest member of the Wirthian family of ALGOL-like languages (Euler, Algol-W, Pascal, Modula, and Modula-2).[1][2][3] Oberon was the result of a concentrated effort to increase the power of Modula-2, the direct successor of Pascal, and simultaneously to reduce its complexity. Its principal new feature is the concept of type extension of record types:[4] It permits the construction of new data types on the basis of existing ones and to relate them, deviating from the dogma of strictly static data typing. Type extension is Wirth's way of inheritance reflecting the viewpoint of the parent site. Oberon was developed as part of the implementation of the Oberon operating system at ETH Zurich in Switzerland. The name is from the moon of Uranus, Oberon. wiki.



440: OBJ2

OBJ2 is a programming language with Clear-like parametrised modules and a functional system based on equations. wiki.



441: Object Lisp

Object Lisp was a computer programming language, a dialect of the Lisp language. It was an object-oriented extension for the Lisp dialect Lisp Machine Lisp, designed by Lisp Machines, Inc. Object Lisp was also an early example of prototype-based programming. wiki.





443: Object REXX

The Object REXX programming language is an object-oriented scripting language initially produced by IBM for OS/2. It is a follow-on to and a significant extension of the "Classic Rexx" language originally created for the CMS component of VM/SP and later ported to MVS,[3] OS/2 and PC DOS. OS/2 version of IBM Object REXX is deeply integrated with SOM.[4] wiki.



444: Object Pascal

Object Pascal refers to a branch of object-oriented derivatives of Pascal, mostly known as the primary programming language of Delphi. wiki.



445: Objective-C

Objective-C is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language that adds Smalltalk-style messaging to the C programming language. It was the main programming language used by Apple for the OS X and iOS operating systems, and their respective application programming interfaces (APIs) Cocoa and Cocoa Touch prior to the introduction of Swift. wiki.



446: Objective-J

Objective-J is a programming language developed as part of the Cappuccino web development framework. Its syntax is nearly identical to the Objective-C syntax and it shares with JavaScript the same relationship that Objective-C has with the C programming language: that of being a strict, but small, superset; adding traditional inheritance and Smalltalk/Objective-C style dynamic dispatch. Pure JavaScript, being a prototype-based language, already has a notion of object orientation and inheritance, but Objective-J adds the use of class-based programming to JavaScript. wiki.



447: Obliq

Obliq is an interpreted, object-oriented programming language designed to make distributed, and locally multi-threaded, computation simple and easy for the programmer, while providing program safety and implicit type system. The interpreter is written in Modula-3, and provides Obliq with full access to Modula-3's network objects capabilities. A type inference algorithm for record concatenation, subtyping and recursive types has been developed for Obliq, more important it has been proved to be NP-complete [1] and its lowest complexity to be (n3) or if under other modeling up to certain conditions down to (n2) [2] and its best known implementation runs in (n5).[3] Obliq's syntax is very similar to Modula-3, the biggest difference being that Obliq has no need of explicit typed variables (i.e., a variable can hold any data type allowed by the type checker and if does not accepts one, i.e., a given expression execution error will be thrown) although explicit type declarations are allowed and ignored by the interpreter. The basic data types in the language include booleans, integers, reals, characters, strings, and arrays. Obliq supports the usual set of sequential control structures (conditional, iteration, and exception handling forms), as well as special control forms for concurrency (mutexes and guarded statements). Besides that Obliq's objects are able to be cloned and safely copied remotely by any machine in a distributed network object and it can be done in a transparent way.[4] wiki.



448: OCaml

OCaml (/okml/ oh-KAM-l), originally named Objective Caml, is the main implementation of the programming language Caml, created by Xavier Leroy, Jrme Vouillon, Damien Doligez, Didier Rmy, Ascnder Surez and others in 1996. A member of the ML language family, OCaml extends the core Caml language with object-oriented programming constructs. wiki.



449: occam

occam is a concurrent programming language that builds on the communicating sequential processes (CSP) process algebra,[1] and shares many of its features. It is named after William of Ockham of Occam's razor fame. wiki.



450: occam-

In computer science, occam- (or occam-pi) is the name of a variant of the programming language occam developed by the Kent Retargetable occam Compiler (KRoC) team at the University of Kent.[1] The name reflects the introduction of elements of -calculus into occam, especially concepts involving mobile agents (processes) and data. The language contains several extensions to occam 2.1, including: wiki.



451: Octave

GNU Octave is software featuring a high-level programming language, primarily intended for numerical computations. Octave helps in solving linear and nonlinear problems numerically, and for performing other numerical experiments using a language that is mostly compatible with MATLAB. It may also be used as a batch-oriented language. Since it is part of the GNU Project, it is free software under the terms of the GNU General Public License. wiki.



452: OmniMark

OmniMark is a fourth-generation programming language used mostly in the publishing industry. It is a proprietary software product of Stilo International. wiki.



453: Onyx

Onyx is a stack-oriented programming language.Used for computers. wiki.



454: Opa

Opa is an open-source programming language for developing scalable web applications. wiki.



455: Opal

OPAL (OPtimized Applicative Language) is a functional programming language first developed at the Technical University of Berlin. wiki.



456: OpenCL

OpenCL (Open Computing Language) is a framework for writing programs that execute across heterogeneous platforms consisting of central processing units (CPUs), graphics processing units (GPUs), digital signal processors (DSPs), field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and other processors or hardware accelerators. OpenCL specifies programming languages (based on C99 and C++11) for programming these devices and application programming interfaces (APIs) to control the platform and execute programs on the compute devices. OpenCL provides a standard interface for parallel computing using task- and data-based parallelism. wiki.



457: OpenEdge ABL

OpenEdge Advanced Business Language, or OpenEdge ABL for short, is a business application development language created and maintained by Progress Software Corporation (PSC). The language, typically classified as a fourth-generation programming language, uses an English-like syntax to simplify software development.[1] The language was called PROGRESS or Progress 4GL up until version 9, but in 2006 PSC changed the name to OpenEdge Advanced Business Language (OpenEdge ABL) in order to overcome a presumed industry perception that 4GLs were less capable than other languages.[2] A subset of the language, called SpeedScript, is used in the development of web applications.[3] wiki.



458: OPL

Open Programming Language (OPL) is an embedded programming language for portable devices that run the Symbian Operating System. wiki.



459: OpenVera

OpenVera is a hardware verification language developed and managed by Synopsys. OpenVera is an interoperable, open hardware verification language for testbench creation. The OpenVera language was used as the basis for the advanced verification features in the IEEE Std. 1800 SystemVerilog standard, for the benefit of the entire verification community including companies in the semiconductor, systems, IP and EDA industries along with verification services. wiki.



460: OPS5

OPS5 is a rule-based or production system computer language, notable as the first such language to be used in a successful expert system, the R1/XCON system used to configure VAX computers. wiki.



461: OptimJ

OptimJ is an extension of the Java with language support for writing optimization models and abstractions for bulk data processing. The extensions and the proprietary product implementing the extensions were developed by Ateji which went out of business in September 2011.[1] OptimJ aims at providing a clear and concise algebraic notation for optimization modeling, removing compatibility barriers between optimization modeling and application programming tools, and bringing software engineering techniques such as object-orientation and modern IDE support to optimization experts. wiki.



462: Orc

Orc is a concurrent, nondeterministic computer programming language created by Jayadev Misra at the University of Texas at Austin. wiki.



463: ORCA/Modula-2

ORCA/Modula-2 is a Modula-2 compiler written in the Modula-2 programming language for the Apple IIGS computer. wiki.



464: Oriel

Oriel is a scripting language released with the Power Tools series of instructional books written by the LeBlond Group. Described in its documentation as a "graphics-based batch language", it was originally designed for Microsoft Windows 3.0 and released with the book Windows 3 Power Tools in 1991.[1] However, versions of the language were also bundled with Windows 3.1 Power Tools in 1992 and Windows NT Power Tools in 1994. wiki.



465: Orwell

Orwell is a small, lazy-evaluation functional programming language implemented principally by Martin Raskovsky and first released in 1984 by Philip Wadler during his time as a Research Fellow in the Programming Research Group, part of the Oxford University Computing Laboratory. Developed as a free alternative to Miranda, it was a forerunner of Haskell and was one of the first programming languages to support list comprehensions and pattern matching. wiki.



466: Oxygene

Oxygene (formerly known as Chrome) is a programming language developed by RemObjects Software for Microsoft's Common Language Infrastructure, the Java Platform and Cocoa. Oxygene is Object Pascal-based, but also has influences from C#, Eiffel, Java, F# and other languages. wiki.



467: Oz

Oz is a multiparadigm programming language, developed in the Programming Systems Lab at Universit catholique de Louvain, for programming language education. It has a canonical textbook: Concepts, Techniques, and Models of Computer Programming. wiki.



468: P

P is a programming language that was developed by Microsoft. P enables programmers to specify systems consisting of a collection of state machines that communicate asynchronously in terms of events.[1] Code can be run on Microsoft Windows and Windows Phone, and is now open source.[2] wiki.



469: P

P is a primitive computer programming language created by Corrado Bhm[1][2] in 1964 to describe a family of Turing machines. wiki.



470: P#

P# is a Prolog interpreter written for the Common Language Infrastructure. wiki.



471: ParaSail (programming language)

Parallel Specification and Implementation Language (ParaSail) is an object-oriented parallel programming language. Its design and ongoing implementation is described in a blog[1] and on its official website.[2] wiki.



472: PARI/GP

PARI/GP is a computer algebra system with the main aim of facilitating number theory computations. Versions 2.1.0 and higher are distributed under the GNU General Public License. It runs on most common operating systems. wiki.



473: Pascal

Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 196869 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. wiki.



474: PCASTL

The PCASTL (an acronym for by Parent and Childset Accessible Syntax Tree Language) is an interpreted high-level programming language. It was created in 2008 by Philippe Choquette.[1] The PCASTL is designed to ease the writing of self-modifying code. The language has reserved words parent and childset to access the nodes of the syntax tree of the currently written code.[2] wiki.



475: PCF

In computer science, Programming Computable Functions, or PCF, is a typed functional language introduced by Gordon Plotkin in 1977, based on previous unpublished material by Dana Scott.[note 1] It can be considered to be an extended version of the typed lambda calculus or a simplified version of modern typed functional languages such as ML or Haskell. wiki.



476: PEARL

PEARL, or Process and experiment automation realtime language, is a computer programming language designed for multitasking and real-time programming. Being a high-level language, it is fairly cross-platform. Since 1977, the language has been going under several standardization steps by the Deutsches Institut fr Normung. The current version is PEARL-90, which was standardized in 1998 as DIN 66253-2. wiki.



477: PeopleCode

PeopleCode is a proprietary object-oriented programming language used to express business logic for PeopleSoft applications. Syntactically, PeopleCode is similar to other programming languages, and can be found in both loosely-typed and strongly-typed forms. PeopleCode and its run-time environment is part of the larger PeopleTools framework. PeopleCode has evolved over time and its implementation through the PeopleSoft applications lack consistency. PeopleCode offers some interoperability with the Java programming language. Definition name references, for example, enable you to refer to PeopleTools definitions, such as record definitions or pages, without using hard-coded string literals.[1] Other language features, such as PeopleCode data types and metastrings, reflect the close interaction of PeopleTools and Structured Query Language (SQL). Dot notation, classes and methods in PeopleCode are similar to other object oriented languages, like Java. Object syntax was an important feature of PeopleTools 8.[2] wiki.



478: Perl

Perl is a family of high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages. The languages in this family include Perl 5 and Perl 6.[8] wiki.



479: PDL

Perl Data Language (abbreviated PDL) is a set of free software array programming extensions to the Perl programming language. PDL extends the data structures built into Perl, to include large multidimensional arrays, and adds functionality to manipulate those arrays as vector objects. It also provides tools for image processing, computer modeling of physical systems, and graphical plotting and presentation. Simple operations are automatically vectorized across complete arrays, and higher-dimensional operations (such as matrix multiplication) are supported. On a computer with both Perl and PDL installed, any Perl script can use the PDL functionality by declaring "use PDL;". wiki.



480: Perl 6

Perl 6 is a member of the Perl family of programming languages.[4] wiki.



481: Pharo

Pharo is an open source dynamic and reflective language inspired from the programming language and environment Smalltalk. Pharo offers strong live programming features such as immediate object manipulation, live update and hot recompilation. The live programming environment is at the heart of the system. wiki.



482: PHP

PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (or simply PHP) is a server-side scripting language designed for Web development, but also used as a general-purpose programming language. It was originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994,[3] the PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Group.[4] PHP originally stood for Personal Home Page,[3] but it now stands for the recursive acronym PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor.[5] wiki.



483: Pico

Pico is a programming language developed at the Software Languages Lab at Vrije Universiteit Brussel. The language was created to introduce the essentials of programming to non-computer science students. wiki.



484: Picolisp

PicoLisp is an open source Lisp dialect. It runs on Linux and other POSIX-compliant systems. wiki.



485: Pict

Pict is a statically typed programming language, one of the very few based on the -calculus. Work on the language began at the University of Edinburgh in 1992, and development has been more or less dormant since 1998. The language is still at an experimental stage. wiki.



486: Pig (programming tool)

Apache Pig[1] is a high-level platform for creating programs that run on Apache Hadoop. The language for this platform is called Pig Latin.[1] Pig can execute its Hadoop jobs in MapReduce, Apache Tez, or Apache Spark[citation needed]. Pig Latin abstracts the programming from the Java MapReduce idiom into a notation which makes MapReduce programming high level, similar to that of SQL for relational database management systems. Pig Latin can be extended using user-defined functions (UDFs) which the user can write in Java, Python, JavaScript, Ruby or Groovy[2] and then call directly from the language. wiki.



487: Pike

Pike is an interpreted, general-purpose, high-level, cross-platform, dynamic programming language, with a syntax similar to that of C. Unlike many other dynamic languages, Pike is both statically and dynamically typed, and requires explicit type definitions. It features a flexible type system that allows the rapid development and flexible code of dynamically typed languages, while still providing some of the benefits of a statically typed language. wiki.



488: PIKT

PIKT is cross-categorical, multi-purpose software for global-view, site-at-a-time system and network administration. Applicability includes system monitoring, configuration management, server and network administration, system security, and many other uses. wiki.



489: PILOT

Programmed Instruction, Learning, or Teaching (PILOT) is a simple programming language developed in the 1960s.[1] Like its younger sibling LOGO, it was an early foray into the technology of computer-assisted instruction wiki.



490: Pipelines

CMS Pipelines implements the pipeline concept under the VM/CMS operating system. The programs in a pipeline operate on a sequential stream of records. A program writes records that are read by the next program in the pipeline. Any program can be combined with any other because reading and writing is done through a device independent interface. wiki.



491: Pizza

Pizza is an open-source superset of Java 1.4, prior to the introduction of generics for the Java programming language. In addition to its own solution for adding generics to the language, Pizza also added function pointers and algebraic types with case classes and pattern matching. wiki.



492: PL-11

PL-11 is a high-level machine-oriented programming language for the PDP-11, developed by R.D. Russell of CERN in 1971. Written in Fortran IV, it is similar to PL360 and is cross-compiled on other machines. wiki.



493: PL/0

PL/0 is a programming language, intended as an educational programming language, that is similar to but much simpler than Pascal, a general-purpose programming language. It serves as an example of how to construct a compiler. It was originally introduced in the book, Algorithms + Data Structures = Programs, by Niklaus Wirth in 1976. It features quite limited language constructs: there are no real numbers, very few basic arithmetic operations and no control-flow constructs other than "if" and "while" blocks. While these limitations make writing real applications in this language impractical, it helps the compiler remain compact and simple. wiki.



494: PL/B

Programming Language for Business or PL/B is a business-oriented programming language originally called DATABUS and designed by Datapoint in 1972[2] as an alternative to COBOL because Datapoint's 8-bit computers could not fit COBOL into their limited memory, and because COBOL did not at the time have facilities to deal with Datapoint's built-in keyboard and screen. wiki.



495: PL/C

PL/C is a computer programming language developed at Cornell University with the specific goal of being used for teaching programming. It is based on IBM's PL/I language, and was designed in the early 1970s. Cornell also developed a compiler for the language that was based on its earlier CUPL compiler, and it was widely used in college-level programming courses. The two researchers and academic teachers who designed PL/C were Richard W. Conway and Thomas R. Wilcox.[1] They submitted the famous article "Design and implementation of a diagnostic compiler for PL/I" published in the Communications of ACM in March 1973, pages 169-179. wiki.



496: PL/I

PL/I (Programming Language One, pronounced /pi l wn/) is a procedural, imperative computer programming language designed for scientific, engineering, business and system programming uses. It has been used by various academic, commercial and industrial organizations since it was introduced in the 1960s, and continues to be actively used.[2] wiki.



497: PL/M

The PL/M programming language (an acronym of Programming Language for Microcomputers[2][3]) is a high-level language conceived and developed by Gary Kildall[2][3][4][1] in 1973[2][3] for Hank Smith[2][3] at Intel for its microprocessors. wiki.



498: PL/P

The PL/P programming language (an acronym of Programming Language for Prime (computers)) is a mid-level programming language developed by Prime Computer to serve as their second primary system programming language after Fortran IV. PL/P was a subset of PL/I. wiki.



499: PL/SQL

PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 6 - stored PL/SQL procedures/functions/ packages/triggers since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. wiki.



500: PL360

PL360 (or PL/360) is a programming language designed by Niklaus Wirth and written by Niklaus Wirth, Joseph W. Wells, Jr., and Edwin Satterthwaite, Jr. for the IBM System/360 computer at Stanford University. A description of PL360 was published in early 1968, although the implementation was probably completed before Wirth left Stanford in 1967.[1] wiki.



501: PLANC

PLANC (pronounced as "plank") is a high level computer programming language. The acronym stands for Programming LAnguage for Nd Computers. wiki.



502: munoz

Muoz is a Spanish-language surname with a Portuguese-language variant (Munhoz). Notable people with the surname include: wiki.



503: Plankalkl

Plankalkl (German pronunciation: [plankalkyl], "Plan Calculus") is a programming language designed for engineering purposes by Konrad Zuse between 1942 and 1945. It was the first high-level (non-von Neumann) programming language to be designed for a computer. wiki.



504: Planner

Planner (often seen in publications as "PLANNER" although it is not an acronym) is a programming language designed by Carl Hewitt at MIT, and first published in 1969. First, subsets such as Micro-Planner and Pico-Planner were implemented, and then essentially the whole language was implemented as Popler by Julian Davies at the University of Edinburgh in the POP-2 programming language.[1] Derivations such as QA4, Conniver, QLISP and Ether (see Scientific Community Metaphor) were important tools in Artificial Intelligence research in the 1970s, which influenced commercial developments such as KEE and ART. wiki.



505: PLEX

PLEX (Programming Language for EXchanges) is a special-purpose, concurrent, real-time programming language. The PLEX language is closely tied to the architecture of Ericsson's AXE telephone exchanges which it was designed to control. PLEX was developed by Gran Hemdahl at Ericsson in the 1970s,[1] and it has been continuously evolving since then.[2] PLEX was described in 2008 as "a cross between Fortran and a macro assembler."[3] wiki.



506: PLEXIL

PLEXIL (Plan Execution Interchange Language) is an open source technology for automation, created and currently in development by NASA. wiki.



507: Plus

Plus is a "Pascal-like" system implementation language from the University of British Columbia (UBC), Canada, based on the SUE[1] system language developed at the University of Toronto, c. 1971.[2] wiki.



508: POP-11

POP-11 is a reflective, incrementally compiled programming language with many of the features of an interpreted language. It is the core language of the Poplog programming environment developed originally by the University of Sussex, and recently in the School of Computer Science at the University of Birmingham which hosts the Poplog website. wiki.



509: POP-2

POP-2, often referred to as POP2 is a discontinued programming language developed around 1970 from the earlier language POP-1 (developed by Robin Popplestone in 1968, originally named COWSEL) by Robin Popplestone and Rod Burstall at the University of Edinburgh.[1] It drew roots from many sources: the languages LISP and ALGOL 60, and theoretical ideas from Peter J. Landin. It used an incremental compiler, which gave it some of the flexibility of an interpreted language, including allowing new function definitions at run time and modification of function definitions while a program was running (both of which are features of dynamic compilation), without the overhead of an interpreted language. wiki.



510: PostScript

PostScript (PS) is a page description language in the electronic publishing and desktop publishing business. It is a dynamically typed, concatenative programming language and was created at Adobe Systems by John Warnock, Charles Geschke, Doug Brotz, Ed Taft and Bill Paxton from 1982 to 1984. wiki.



511: PortablE

Amiga E, or very often simply E, is a programming language created by Wouter van Oortmerssen on the Amiga. He has since moved on to develop the SHEEP programming language for the new AmigaDE platform and the CryScript language (also known as DOG) used during the development of the video game Far Cry. wiki.



512: Powerhouse

PowerHouse is a trademarked name for a byte-compiled fourth-generation programming language (or 4GL) originally produced by Quasar Corporation (later renamed Cognos Incorporated) for the Hewlett-Packard HP3000 mini-computer. It was initially composed of five components: wiki.



513: PowerBuilder

PowerBuilder is an integrated development environment owned by SAP since the acquisition of Sybase in 2010. On July 5, 2016, SAP and Appeon entered into an agreement whereby Appeon would be responsible for developing, selling, and supporting PowerBuilder.[1] wiki.



514: PowerShell

PowerShell is a task automation and configuration management framework from Microsoft, consisting of a command-line shell and associated scripting language. Initially a Windows component only, known as Windows PowerShell, it was made open-source and cross-platform on 18 August 2016 with the introduction of PowerShell Core.[5] The former is built on .NET Framework while the latter on .NET Core. wiki.



515: PPL

The Polymorphic Programming Language (PPL) was developed in 1969 at Harvard University by Thomas A. Standish. It is an interactive, extensible language with a base language similar to APL. wiki.



516: Processing

Processing is an open-source computer programming language and integrated development environment (IDE) built for the electronic arts, new media art, and visual design communities with the purpose of teaching non-programmers the fundamentals of computer programming in a visual context. The Processing language builds on the Java language, but uses a simplified syntax and a graphics user interface. wiki.



517: Processing.js

wiki.



518: Prograph

Prograph is a visual, object-oriented, dataflow, multiparadigm programming language that uses iconic symbols to represent actions to be taken on data. Commercial Prograph software development environments such as Prograph Classic and Prograph CPX were available for the Apple Macintosh and Windows platforms for many years but were eventually withdrawn from the market in the late 1990s. Support for the Prograph language on macOS has recently reappeared with the release of the Marten software development environment. wiki.



519: PROIV

PROIV is a low code development platform, developed and sold by NorthgateArinso, part of the Northgate Information Solutions Group. It has an active community of around 2500 developers and end-users worldwide, ranging from consultants to large multinationals, finance institutions, tax authorities, retailers, engineering companies, media operators and software houses. wiki.



520: Prolog

Prolog is a general-purpose logic programming language associated with artificial intelligence and computational linguistics.[1][2][3] wiki.



521: PROMAL

PROMAL (PROgrammer's Microapplication Language) is a structured programming language from Systems Management Associates for MS-DOS, Commodore 64, and Apple II. PROMAL features simple syntax, no line numbers, long variable names, functions and procedures with argument passing, real number type, arrays, strings, pointer, and a built-in I/O library. Like ABC and Python, indentation is part of the language syntax. wiki.



522: Promela

PROMELA (Process or Protocol Meta Language) is a verification modeling language introduced by Gerard J. Holzmann. The language allows for the dynamic creation of concurrent processes to model, for example, distributed systems. In PROMELA models, communication via message channels can be defined to be synchronous (i.e., rendezvous), or asynchronous (i.e., buffered). PROMELA models can be analyzed with the SPIN model checker, to verify that the modeled system produces the desired behavior. An implementation verified with Isabelle/HOL is also available, as part of the Computer Aided Verification of Automata project.[1] Files written in Promela traditionally have a .pml file extension. wiki.



523: PROSE modeling language

PROSE[1][2][3][4] was the mathematical 4GL virtual machine which established the holistic modeling paradigm known as Synthetic Calculus[5][6][7] (AKA MetaCalculus). A successor to the SLANG[8]/CUE[9] simulation and optimization language developed at TRW Systems, it was introduced in 1974 on Control Data supercomputers. It was the first commercial language[10][11][12][13] to employ automatic differentiation (AD), which was optimized to loop in the instruction-stack of the CDC 6600 CPU. wiki.



524: PROTEL

Protel stands for "Procedure Oriented Type Enforcing Language". It is a programming language created by Nortel Networks and used on telecommunications switching systems such as the DMS-100.[1][2] Protel-2 is the object-oriented version of Protel.[3][4] wiki.



525: ProvideX

ProvideX is a computer language and development environment derived from Business Basic (a business oriented derivative of BASIC) in the mid-1980s. wiki.



526: Pro*C

Pro*C (also known as Pro*C/C++) is an embedded SQL programming language used by Oracle Database database management systems. Pro*C uses either C or C++ as its host language. During compilation, the embedded SQL statements are interpreted by a precompiler and replaced by C or C++ function calls to their respective SQL library. The output from the Pro*C precompiler is standard C or C++ code that is then compiled by any one of several C or C++ compilers into an executable. wiki.



527: Pure

Pure, successor to the equational language Q, is a dynamically typed, functional programming language based on term rewriting. It has facilities for user-defined operator syntax, macros, arbitrary-precision arithmetic (multiple-precision numbers), and compiling to native code through the LLVM. Pure is free and open-source software distributed (mostly) under the GNU Lesser General Public License version 3 or later. wiki.



528: PureBasic

PureBasic is a commercially distributed procedural computer programming language and integrated development environment based on BASIC and developed by Fantaisie Software for Windows 32/64-bit, Linux 32/64-bit, and macOS. An Amiga version is available, although it has been discontinued and some parts of it are released as open source. The first public release of PureBasic for Windows was on December 17, 2000. It has been continually updated since. wiki.



529: Pure Data

Pure Data (Pd) is a visual programming language developed by Miller Puckette in the 1990s for creating interactive computer music and multimedia works. While Puckette is the main author of the program, Pd is an open source project with a large developer base working on new extensions. It is released under a license similar to the BSD license. It runs on GNU/Linux, Mac OS X, iOS, Android and Windows. Ports exist for FreeBSD and IRIX. wiki.



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530: Python

Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming. Created by Guido van Rossum and first released in 1991, Python has a design philosophy that emphasizes code readability, notably using significant whitespace. It provides constructs that enable clear programming on both small and large scales.[26] wiki.



531: Q (equational programming language)

Pure, successor to the equational language Q, is a dynamically typed, functional programming language based on term rewriting. It has facilities for user-defined operator syntax, macros, arbitrary-precision arithmetic (multiple-precision numbers), and compiling to native code through the LLVM. Pure is free and open-source software distributed (mostly) under the GNU Lesser General Public License version 3 or later. wiki.



532: Q (programming language from Kx Systems)

Q is a proprietary array processing language developed by Arthur Whitney and commercialized by Kx Systems. The language serves as the query language for kdb+, a disk based and in-memory, column-based database. kdb+ is based upon K, a terse variant of APL. Q is a thin wrapper around K, providing a more readable, English-like interface.[3] wiki.



533: Q# (Microsoft programming language)

Q# (pronounced as Q sharp) is a domain-specific programming language used for expressing quantum algorithms.[1] It was initially released to the public by Microsoft as part of the Quantum Development Kit.[2] wiki.



534: Qalb

wiki.



535: QtScript

QtScript is a scripting engine that has been part of the Qt cross-platform application framework since version 4.3.0. wiki.



536: QuakeC

QuakeC is an interpreted language developed in 1996 by John Carmack of id Software to program parts of the video game Quake. Using QuakeC, a programmer is able to customize Quake to great extents by adding weapons, changing game logic and physics, and programming complex scenarios. It can be used to control many aspects of the game itself, such as parts of the AI, triggers, or changes in the level. The Quake engine was the only game engine to use QuakeC. Following engines used DLL game modules for customization written in C and C++ from id Tech 4 on. wiki.



537: QPL

Quantum programming is the process of assembling sequences of instructions, called quantum programs, that are capable of running on a quantum computer. Quantum programming languages help express quantum algorithms using high-level constructs.[1] The most up-to-date list of open-source quantum programming projects can be found here. wiki.



538: R

R is a programming language and free software environment for statistical computing and graphics that is supported by the R Foundation for Statistical Computing.[6] The R language is widely used among statisticians and data miners for developing statistical software[7] and data analysis.[8] Polls, surveys of data miners, and studies of scholarly literature databases show that R's popularity has increased substantially in recent years.[9] As of May 2018,[update] R ranks 11th in the TIOBE index, a measure of popularity of programming languages.[10] wiki.



539: R++

R++ is a rule-based programming language based on C++. The United States patent describes R++ as follows: wiki.



540: Racket

Racket (formerly PLT Scheme) is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm programming language in the Lisp-Scheme family. One of its design goals is to serve as a platform for language creation, design, and implementation.[7][8] The language is used in a variety of contexts such as scripting, general-purpose programming, computer science education, and research. wiki.



541: RAPID

RAPID is a high-level programming language used to control ABB industrial robots. RAPID was introduced along with S4 Control System in 1994 by ABB, superseding the ARLA programming language. wiki.



542: Rapira

Rapira (Russian: , rapier) is an educational procedural programming language developed in the Soviet Union and implemented on Agat computer, PDP-11 clones (Electronika, DVK, BK series) and Intel-8080/Z80 clones (Korvet). It was an interpreted language with dynamic type system and high level constructions. The language originally had a Russian-based set of keywords, but English and Moldovan were added later. Also, it was more elegant and easier to use than existing Pascal implementations of the time[according to whom?]. wiki.



543: Ratfiv

Ratfiv is an enhanced version of the Ratfor programming language, a preprocessor for Fortran designed to give it C-like capabilities. Fortran was widely used for scientific programming but had very basic control-flow primitives ("do" and "goto") and no "macro" facility which limited its expressiveness. wiki.



544: Ratfor

Ratfor (short for Rational Fortran) is a programming language implemented as a preprocessor for Fortran 66. It provided modern control structures, unavailable in Fortran 66, to replace GOTOs and statement numbers. wiki.



545: rc

rc (for "run commands") is the command line interpreter for Version 10 Unix and Plan 9 from Bell Labs operating systems. It resembles the Bourne shell, but its syntax is somewhat simpler. It was created by Tom Duff, who is better known for an unusual C programming language construct ("Duff's device"). wiki.



546: REBOL

Rebol (/rbl/ REB-l; historically REBOL) is a cross-platform[6] data exchange language and a multi-paradigm dynamic programming language designed by Carl Sassenrath for network communications and distributed computing. It introduces the concept of dialecting: small, optimized, domain-specific languages for code and data,[6][7] which is also the most notable property of the language according to its designer Carl Sassenrath: wiki.



547: Red

Red is a computer programming language. Red was made to overcome the limitations of the programming language Rebol. Introduced in 2011 by Nenad Rakocevic, Red is both an imperative and functional programming language. Its syntax and general usage overlaps that of the interpreted Rebol language (which was introduced in 1997). wiki.



548: Redcode

Core War is a 1984 programming game created by D. G. Jones and A. K. Dewdney in which two or more battle programs (called "warriors") compete for control of a virtual computer. These battle programs are written in an abstract assembly language called Redcode. wiki.



549: REFAL

Refal ("[of] Recursive functions' algorithmic language") "is functional programming language oriented toward symbolic computations", including "string processing, language translation, [and] artificial intelligence".[1] It is one of the oldest members of this family, first conceived of in 1966 as a theoretical tool, with the first implementation appearing in 1968. Refal was intended to combine mathematical simplicity with practicality for writing large and sophisticated programs. wiki.



550: Reia

Elixir is a functional, concurrent, general-purpose programming language that runs on the Erlang virtual machine (BEAM).[3] Elixir builds on top of Erlang and shares the same abstractions for building distributed, fault-tolerant applications. Elixir also provides a productive tooling and an extensible design. The latter is supported by compile-time metaprogramming with macros and polymorphism via protocols.[4] wiki.



551: REXX

Rexx (Restructured Extended Executor) is an interpreted programming language developed at IBM by Mike Cowlishaw.[2][3] It is a structured, high-level programming language designed for ease of learning and reading. Proprietary and open source Rexx interpreters exist for a wide range of computing platforms; compilers exist for IBM mainframe computers.[4] wiki.



552: Ring

Ring is a dynamic and general-purpose programming language. It can be embedded in C/C++ projects, extended using C/C++ code and/or used as a standalone language. The supported programming paradigms are imperative, procedural, object-oriented, functional, meta, declarative using nested structures, and natural programming. The language is portable (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Android, etc.) and can be used to create console, GUI, web, game and mobile applications.[2][3][4][5][6][7] [8] wiki.



553: Rlab

Rlab is an interactive, interpreted numerical computation program and its core programming language, written by Ian Searle. Rlab (the language) is very high level and is intended to provide fast prototyping and program development, as well as easy data-visualization, and processing. wiki.



554: ROOP

ROOP is a multiparadigm programming language targeted at AI applications created at the Chengdu University of China. It combines rule-based, procedural, logical and object-oriented programming techniques. wiki.



555: RPG

RPG is a high-level programming language (HLL) for business applications. RPG is an IBM proprietary programming language and its later versions are available only on IBM i- or OS/400-based systems.[1] wiki.



556: RPL

RPL (derived from Reverse Polish Lisp according to its original developers,[2][3][4][5][6][7] whilst for a short while in 1987 HP marketing attempted to coin the backronym ROM-based Procedural Language for it[1][7][8]) is a handheld calculator operating system and application programming language used on Hewlett-Packard's scientific graphing RPN (Reverse Polish Notation) calculators of the HP 28, 48, 49 and 50 series, but it is also usable on non-RPN calculators, such as the 38, 39 and 40 series. wiki.



557: RSL

Robot Battle is a programming game for Microsoft Windows where players design and code adaptable battling robots. Robot Battle takes strategy rather than reflexes, accuracy, or timing to succeed. What differentiates one robot from the next is its programming, for which the player is responsible. The game is inspired by the similar game RobotWar. wiki.



558: RTL/2

RTL/2 was a high-level programming language developed at Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd by J.G.P. Barnes. It was originally used internally within ICI but was distributed by SPL International in 1974[1] It was designed for use in real-time computing (hence the initials RTL = real-time language). Based on concepts from Algol 68, it was intended to be a small, simple language.[2][3] RTL/2 was standardised in 1980 by the British Standards Institution.[4] wiki.



559: Ruby

Ruby is a dynamic, interpreted, reflective, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language. It was designed and developed in the mid-1990s by Yukihiro "Matz" Matsumoto in Japan. wiki.



560: RuneScript

RuneScape is a fantasy MMORPG developed and published by Jagex, which released in January 2001. RuneScape was originally a browser game built with the Java programming language, but was largely replaced by a standalone C++-coded client in 2016. The game has had over 200million accounts created and is recognised by the Guinness World Records as the world's largest and most-updated free MMORPG.[1] wiki.



561: Rust

Rust is a systems programming language[10] sponsored by Mozilla[11] which describes it as a "safe, concurrent, practical language,"[12] supporting functional and imperative-procedural paradigms. Rust is syntactically similar to C++, but its designers intend it to provide better memory safety while still maintaining performance. wiki.



562: S

S is a statistical programming language developed primarily by John Chambers and (in earlier versions) Rick Becker and Allan Wilks of Bell Laboratories. The aim of the language, as expressed by John Chambers, is "to turn ideas into software, quickly and faithfully".[1] wiki.



563: S2

S2 (Style System 2) is an object-oriented programming language developed in the late 1990s by Brad Fitzpatrick, Martin "Mart" Atkins, and others for the online journaling service LiveJournal in order to allow users full control over the appearance of their pages. S2 source code is compiled into Perl, which the webserver can then execute directly for individual web page requests. wiki.



564: S3

S3 is a structured, imperative high-level computer programming language.[1] It was developed by the UK company International Computers Limited (ICL) for its 2900 Series mainframes. It is a system programming language with syntax influenced by ALGOL 68 but with data types and operators aligned to those offered by the 2900 Series. It was the implementation language of the operating system VME. wiki.



565: S-Lang

The S-Lang programming library is a software library for Unix, Windows, VMS, OS/2, and Mac OS X. It provides routines for embedding an interpreter for the S-Lang scripting language, and components to facilitate the creation of text-based applications.[1] The latter class of functions include routines for constructing and manipulating keymaps, an interactive line-editing facility, and both low and high-level screen/terminal management functions. It is distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License. wiki.



566: S-PLUS

S-PLUS is a commercial implementation of the S programming language sold by TIBCO Software Inc.. wiki.



567: SA-C

Single Assignment C (SA-C) (pronounced "sassy") is a member of the C programming language family designed to be directly and intuitively translatable into circuits, including FPGAs. To ease translation, SA-C does not include pointers and arithmetics thereon. To retain most of the expressiveness of C, SA-C instead features true n-dimensional arrays as first-class objects of the language. wiki.



568: SabreTalk

SabreTalk is a discontinued dialect of PL/I for the S/360 IBM mainframes running the TPF platform. SabreTalk was developed jointly by American Airlines, Eastern Air Lines and IBM. SabreTalk is known as PL/TPF (Programming Language for TPF).[1] wiki.



569: SAIL

SAIL, the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Language, was developed by Dan Swinehart and Bob Sproull of the Stanford AI Lab in 1970. It was originally a large ALGOL 60-like language for the PDP-10 and DECSYSTEM-20. wiki.



570: SALSA

The SALSA programming language (Simple Actor Language System and Architecture) is an actor-oriented programming language that uses concurrency primitives beyond asynchronous message passing, including token-passing, join, and first-class continuations. It also supports distributed computing over the Internet with universal naming, remote communication, and migration linguistic abstractions and associated middleware. For portability, it produces Java code. wiki.



571: SAM76

SAM76 is a macro programming language used from the late 1970s to the present 2007 initially ran on CP/M. wiki.



572: SAS

SAS (previously "Statistical Analysis System")[1] is a software suite developed by SAS Institute for advanced analytics, multivariate analyses, business intelligence, data management, and predictive analytics. wiki.



573: SASL

SASL (from St Andrews Static Language, alternatively St Andrews Standard Language) is a purely functional programming language developed by David Turner at the University of St Andrews in 1972, based on the applicative subset of ISWIM.[1] In 1976 Turner redesigned and reimplemented it as a non-strict (lazy) language.[2] In this form it was the foundation of Turner's later languages KRC and Miranda, but SASL appears to be untyped whereas Miranda has polymorphic types. wiki.



574: Sather

Sather is an object-oriented programming language. It originated circa 1990 at the International Computer Science Institute (ICSI) at the University of California, Berkeley, developed by an international team led by Steve Omohundro. It supports garbage collection and generics by subtypes. wiki.



575: Sawzall

Sawzall is a procedural domain-specific programming language, used by Google to process large numbers of individual log records. Sawzall was first described in 2003,[1] and the szl runtime was open-sourced in August 2010.[2] However, since the MapReduce table aggregators have not been released,[3] the open-sourced runtime is not useful for large-scale data analysis of multiple log files off the shelf. wiki.



576: SBL

Superbase is an end-user desktop database program that started on the Commodore 64 and was ported from that to various operating systems over the course of more than 20 years. It also has generally included a programming language to automate database-oriented tasks, and with later versions included WYSIWYG form and report designers as well as more sophisticated programming capabilities. wiki.



577: Scala

Scala (/skl/ SKAH-lah)[9] is a general-purpose programming language providing support for functional programming and a strong static type system. Designed to be concise,[10] many of Scala's design decisions aimed to address criticisms of Java.[8] wiki.



578: Scheme

Scheme is a programming language that supports multiple paradigms, including functional programming and imperative programming,[1] and is one of the two main dialects of Lisp. Unlike Common Lisp, the other main dialect, Scheme follows a minimalist design philosophy specifying a small standard core with powerful tools for language extension. wiki.



579: Scilab

Scilab is a free and open-source, cross-platform numerical computational package and a high-level, numerically oriented programming language. It can be used for signal processing, statistical analysis, image enhancement, fluid dynamics simulations, numerical optimization, and modeling, simulation of explicit and implicit dynamical systems and (if the corresponding toolbox is installed) symbolic manipulations. wiki.



580: Script.NET

Script.NET or S# is a metaprogramming language that provides scripting functionality in Microsoft .NET applications, allowing runtime execution of custom functionality, similar to VBA in Microsoft Office applications. The syntax of Script.NET is similar to JavaScript. It is designed to be simple and efficient scripting language allowing to customize .NET applications. The language has a true runtime interpreter, and it is executed without generating additional in-memory assemblies. wiki.



581: Sed

sed (stream editor) is a Unix utility that parses and transforms text, using a simple, compact programming language. sed was developed from 1973 to 1974 by Lee E. McMahon of Bell Labs,[1] and is available today for most operating systems.[2] sed was based on the scripting features of the interactive editor ed ("editor", 1971) and the earlier qed ("quick editor", 196566). sed was one of the earliest tools to support regular expressions, and remains in use for text processing, most notably with the substitution command. Other options for doing "stream editing" include AWK and Perl. wiki.



582: Seed7

Seed7 is an extensible general-purpose programming language designed by Thomas Mertes. It is syntactically similar to Pascal and Ada. Along with many other features, it provides an extension mechanism.[2] Seed7 supports introducing new syntax elements and their semantics into the language, and allows new language constructs to be defined and written in Seed7.[3] For example, programmers can introduce syntax and semantics of new statements and user defined operator symbols. The implementation of Seed7 differs significantly from that of languages with hard-coded syntax and semantics. wiki.



583: Self

Self is an object-oriented programming language based on the concept of prototypes. Self began as a dialect of Smalltalk, being dynamically typed and using just-in-time compilation (JIT) as well as the prototype-based approach to objects: it was first used as an experimental test system for language design in the 1980s and 1990s. In 2006, Self was still being developed as part of the Klein project, which was a Self virtual machine written fully in Self. The latest version is 2017.1 released in May 2017.[1] wiki.



584: SenseTalk

SenseTalk is an English-like scripting language derived from the HyperTalk language used in HyperCard. SenseTalk was originally developed as the scripting language within the HyperSense multimedia authoring application on the NeXTStep and OpenStep platforms. SenseTalk resurfaced in 2002 as the scripting language in eggPlant, the first commercial Mac OS X and cross-platform GUI testing application. wiki.



585: SequenceL

SequenceL is a general purpose functional programming language and auto-parallelizing (Parallel computing) compiler and tool set, whose primary design objectives are performance on multi-core processor hardware, ease of programming, platform portability/optimization, and code clarity and readability. Its main advantage is that it can be used to write straightforward code that automatically takes full advantage of all the processing power available, without programmers needing to be concerned with identifying parallelisms, specifying vectorization, avoiding race conditions, and other challenges of manual directive-based programming approaches such as OpenMP. wiki.



586: Serpent

Ethereum is an open-source, public, blockchain-based distributed computing platform and operating system featuring smart contract (scripting) functionality.[3] It supports a modified version of Nakamoto consensus via transaction based state transitions. wiki.



587: SETL

SETL (SET Language) is a very high-level programming language based on the mathematical theory of sets. It was originally developed by (Jack) Jacob T. Schwartz at the New York University (NYU) Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in the late 1960s. wiki.



588: SIMPOL

Superbase is an end-user desktop database program that started on the Commodore 64 and was ported from that to various operating systems over the course of more than 20 years. It also has generally included a programming language to automate database-oriented tasks, and with later versions included WYSIWYG form and report designers as well as more sophisticated programming capabilities. wiki.



589: SIGNAL

SIGNAL is a programming language based on synchronized data-flow (flows + synchronization): a process is a set of equations on elementary flows describing both data and control.[1] wiki.



590: SiMPLE

SiMPLE (a recursive acronym for SiMPLE Modular Programming Language & Environment) is a programming development system that was created to provide easy programming capabilities for everybody, especially non-professionals. wiki.



591: SIMSCRIPT

SIMSCRIPT is a free-form, English-like general-purpose simulation language conceived by Harry Markowitz and Bernard Hausner at the RAND Corporation in 1963. It was implemented as a Fortran preprocessor on the IBM 7090 and was designed for large discrete event simulations. It influenced Simula. wiki.



592: Simula

Simula is the name of two simulation programming languages, Simula I and Simula 67, developed in the 1960s at the Norwegian Computing Center in Oslo, by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard. Syntactically, it is a fairly faithful superset of ALGOL 60.[1]:1.3.1 wiki.





594: Singularity

Singularity is an experimental operating system (OS) which was built by Microsoft Research between 2003 and 2010.[1] It was designed as a high dependability OS in which the kernel, device drivers, and application software were all written in managed code. Internal security uses type safety instead of hardware memory protection. wiki.



595: SISAL

SISAL ("Streams and Iteration in a Single Assignment Language") is a general-purpose single assignment functional programming language with strict semantics, implicit parallelism, and efficient array handling. SISAL outputs a dataflow graph in Intermediary Form 1 (IF1). It was derived from VAL (Value-oriented Algorithmic Language, designed by Jack Dennis), and adds recursion and finite streams. It has a Pascal-like syntax and was designed to be a common high-level language for numerical programs on a variety of multiprocessors. wiki.



596: SLIP

SLIP is a list processing computer programming language, invented by Joseph Weizenbaum in the 1960s. The name SLIP stands for Symmetric LIst Processor. It was first implemented as an extension to the Fortran programming language, and later embedded into MAD and ALGOL.[1] wiki.



597: SMALL

SMALL, Small Machine Algol Like Language, is a programming language developed by Dr. Nevil Brownlee of Auckland University. wiki.



598: Scratch

Scratch is a visual programming language and online community targeted primarily at children. Using Scratch, users can create online projects and make them into anything by coding with simple blocks. When they are done or when the desire to, they then share and can discuss their creations with each other. Developed by the Lifelong Kindergarten group at the MIT Media Lab,[1] the service is designed to help children (ages 8 and up) learn to imagine, reason with common sense, and work with computers. wiki.



599: Smalltalk

Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective programming language. Smalltalk was created as the language to underpin the "new world" of computing exemplified by "humancomputer symbiosis."[2] It was designed and created in part for educational use, more so for constructionist learning, at the Learning Research Group (LRG) of Xerox PARC by Alan Kay, Dan Ingalls, Adele Goldberg, Ted Kaehler, Scott Wallace, and others during the 1970s. wiki.



600: SML

Standard ML (SML; "Standard Meta Language") is a general-purpose, modular, functional programming language with compile-time type checking and type inference. It is popular among compiler writers and programming language researchers, as well as in the development of theorem provers. wiki.



601: Strongtalk

Strongtalk is a Smalltalk environment with optional static typing support. Strongtalk can make some compile time checks, and offer "stronger" type safety guarantees; this is the source of its name. It is non-commercial, though it was originally a commercial project developed by a small start-up company called LongView Technologies (trading as Animorphic Systems). wiki.



602: Snap!

Snap! is a free, blocks- and browser-based educational graphical programming language that allows students to create interactive animations, games, stories, and more, while learning about mathematical and computational ideas. Snap! was inspired by Scratch, but also targets both novice and more advanced students by including and expanding Scratch's features. wiki.



603: SNOBOL

SNOBOL (StriNg Oriented and symBOlic Language) is a series of computer programming languages developed between 1962 and 1967 at AT&T Bell Laboratories by David J. Farber, Ralph E. Griswold and Ivan P. Polonsky, culminating in SNOBOL4. It was one of a number of text-string-oriented languages developed during the 1950s and 1960s; others included COMIT and TRAC. wiki.



604: SPITBOL

SPITBOL (Speedy Implementation of SNOBOL) is a compiled implementation of the SNOBOL4 programming language. Originally targeted for the IBM System/360 and System/370 family of computers, it has now been ported to most major microprocessors including the SPARC. It was created by Robert Dewar and Ken Belcher, who were then at the Illinois Institute of Technology. wiki.



605: Snowball

Snowball is a small string processing programming language designed for creating stemming algorithms for use in information retrieval.[1] wiki.



606: SOL

The Secure Operations Language (SOL) was developed jointly by the United States Naval Research Laboratory and Utah State University in the United States. SOL is a domain-specific synchronous programming language for developing distributed applications and is based on software engineering principles developed in the Software Cost Reduction project at the Naval Research Laboratory in the late 1970s and early 1980s. SOL is intended to be a domain-specific language for developing service-based systems. Concurrently, a domain-specific extension of Java (SOLj) is being developed (FTDCS 2007) Application domains include sensor networks, defense and space systems, healthcare delivery, power control, etc. wiki.



607: Solidity

Solidity is a contract-oriented programming language for writing smart contracts.[1] It is used for implementing smart contracts[2] on various blockchain platforms.[3][4][5] It was developed by Gavin Wood, Christian Reitwiessner, Alex Beregszaszi, Liana Husikyan, Yoichi Hirai and several former Ethereum core contributors to enable writing smart contracts on blockchain platforms such as Ethereum.[6][7][8] wiki.



608: SOPHAEROS

SOPHAEROS is a computer code, used by the AECL and French Nuclear program to simulate the transfer of fission products in the reactor chamber. It models fission product behaviour using a set of aerosol dynamic rules, and is used by AECL in fuel channel safety analyses. wiki.



609: SPARK

SPARK is a formally defined computer programming language based on the Ada programming language, intended for the development of high integrity software used in systems where predictable and highly reliable operation is essential. It facilitates the development of applications that demand safety, security, or business integrity. wiki.



610: Speedcode

Speedcoding or Speedcode was the first high-level programming language created for an IBM computer.[1] The language was developed by John Backus in 1953 for the IBM 701 to support computation with floating point numbers.[2] Here high level means symbolic and aiming for natural language expressivity as a goal as opposed to machine or hardware instruction oriented coding. wiki.



611: SPIN

The Parallax P8X32A Propeller is a multi-core processor parallel computer architecture microcontroller chip with eight 32-bit reduced instruction set computer (RISC) central processing unit (CPU) cores.[1][2] Introduced in 2006, it is designed and sold by Parallax, Inc. wiki.



612: SP/k

SP/k is a programming language developed circa 1974[1] by R.C. Holt, D.B. Wortman, D.T. Barnard and J.R. Cordy as a subset of the PL/I programming language designed for teaching programming. It was used for about a decade at over 40 universities, schools, and research laboratories in Canada and the United States. wiki.



613: SPS

The IBM 1401 Symbolic Programming System (SPS) was an assembler that was developed by Gary Mokotoff, IBM Applied Programming Department, for the IBM 1401 computer, the first of the IBM 1400 series. One source indicates that "This programming system was announced by IBM with the machine."[1] wiki.



614: SQR

SQR (Hyperion SQR Production Reporting, Part of OBIEE) is a programming language designed for generating reports from database management systems. The name is an acronym of Structured Query Reporter, which suggests its relationship to SQL (Structured Query Language). Any SQL statement can be embedded in an SQR program. wiki.



615: Squeak

The Squeak programming language is a dialect of Smalltalk. It is object-oriented, class-based, and reflective. wiki.



616: Squirrel

Squirrel is a high level imperative, object-oriented programming language, designed to be a lightweight scripting language that fits in the size, memory bandwidth, and real-time requirements of applications like video games and hardware such as Electric Imp. wiki.



617: SR

SR (short for Synchronizing Resources) is a programming language designed for concurrent programming. wiki.



618: S/SL

The Syntax/Semantic Language (S/SL) is an executable high level specification language for recursive descent parsers, semantic analyzers and code generators developed by James Cordy, Ric Holt and David Wortman at the University of Toronto in 1980.[1] wiki.



619: Stackless Python

Stackless Python, or Stackless, is a Python programming language interpreter, so named because it avoids depending on the C call stack for its own stack. The most prominent feature of Stackless is microthreads, which avoid much of the overhead associated with usual operating system threads. In addition to Python features, Stackless also adds support for coroutines, communication channels and task serialization. wiki.





621: Strand

Strand is a high-level symbolic language for parallel computing, similar in syntax to Prolog. wiki.



622: Stata

Stata is a general-purpose statistical software package created in 1985 by StataCorp. Most of its users work in research, especially in the fields of economics, sociology, political science, biomedicine and epidemiology.[2] wiki.



623: Stateflow

Stateflow (developed by MathWorks) is a control logic tool used to model reactive systems via state machines and flow charts within a Simulink model. Stateflow uses a variant of the finite-state machine notation established by David Harel, enabling the representation of hierarchy, parallelism and history within a state chart.[2][3] Stateflow also provides state transition tables and truth tables. wiki.



624: Subtext

Subtext is a moderately visual programming language and environment, for writing application software. It is an experimental, research attempt to develop a new programming model, called Example Centric Programming, by treating copied blocks as first class prototypes, for program structure. It uses live text, similar to what occurs in spreadsheets as users update cells, for frequent feedback. It is intended to eventually be developed enough to become a practical language for daily use. It is planned to be open software; the license is not yet determined. wiki.



625: SuperCollider

SuperCollider is an environment and programming language originally released in 1996 by James McCartney for real-time audio synthesis and algorithmic composition.[2][3] wiki.



626: SuperTalk

SuperTalk is the scripting language used in SuperCard. SuperTalk is a descendant of HyperTalk. wiki.



627: Swift (Apple programming language)

Swift is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language developed by Apple Inc. for iOS, macOS, watchOS, tvOS, and Linux. Swift is designed to work with Apple's Cocoa and Cocoa Touch frameworks and the large body of existing Objective-C (ObjC) code written for Apple products. It is built with the open source LLVM compiler framework and has been included in Xcode since version 6. On platforms other than Linux,[9] it uses the Objective-C runtime library which allows C, Objective-C, C++ and Swift code to run within one program.[10] wiki.



628: Swift (parallel scripting language)

Swift[1] is an implicitly parallel programming language that allows writing scripts that distribute program execution across distributed computing resources,[2] including clusters, clouds, grids, and supercomputers. Swift implementations are open-source software under the Apache License, version 2.0. wiki.



629: SYMPL

SYMPL is an obsolete programming language developed by the Control Data Corporation (CDC) for use on the CDC 6000 series computer systems in the 1970s and 1980s. It was based on a subset of CDCs version of JOVIAL, as an alternative to assembly language. A number of important CDC software products were implemented in SYMPL, including compilers, libraries, a full-screen editor, and major subsystems. wiki.



630: SystemVerilog

In the semiconductor and electronic design industry, SystemVerilog is a combined hardware description language and hardware verification language based on extensions to Verilog. wiki.



631: T

The T programming language is a dialect of the Scheme programming language developed in the early 1980s by Jonathan A. Rees, Kent M. Pitman, and Norman I. Adams of Yale University as an experiment in language design and implementation. wiki.



632: TACL

TACL (the Tandem Advanced Command Language) is the scripting programming language used in Tandem Computers. TACL is the shell. wiki.



633: TACPOL

TACPOL (Tactical Procedure Oriented Language) is a block structured programming language developed by the United States Army for the TACFIRE Tactical Fire Direction command and control application. TACPOL is similar to PL/I. wiki.



634: TADS

Text Adventure Development System (TADS) is a prototype-based domain-specific programming language and set of standard libraries for creating interactive fiction (IF) games. wiki.



635: TAL

Transaction Application Language or TAL (originally "Tandem Application Language") is a block-structured, procedural language optimized for use on Tandem hardware. TAL resembles a cross between C and Pascal. It was the original system programming language for the Tandem CISC machines, which had no assembler. wiki.



636: Tcl

Tcl (pronounced "tickle" or tee cee ell, /ti si l/) is a high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language. It was designed with the goal of being very simple but powerful.[6] Tcl casts everything into the mold of a command, even programming constructs like variable assignment and procedure definition.[7] Tcl supports multiple programming paradigms, including object-oriented, imperative and functional programming or procedural styles. wiki.



637: Tea

Tea is a high level scripting language for the Java environment. It combines features of Scheme, Tcl, and Java. wiki.



638: TECO

TECO (Tee'koh[1] / /tiko/), Text Editor & COrrector[2][3][4] is both a sophisticated character-oriented text editor and a powerful programming language[5][6] that was developed in 1962 for use on Digital Equipment Corporation computers, and has since become available on PCs and Unix. Dan Murphy developed TECO while still a student at MIT, and subsequently worked for Digital Equipment Corporation.[5] wiki.



639: TELCOMP

TELCOMP was a programming language developed at Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN) in about 1964 and in use until at least 1974. BBN offered TELCOMP as a paid service, with first revenue in October 1965.[1] The service was sold to a company called On-Line Systems in 1972. In the United Kingdom, TELCOMP was offered by Time Sharing, Ltd, a partnership between BBN and an entrepreneur named Richard Evans. wiki.



640: TeX

TeX (/tx, tk/, see below), stylized within the system as TeX, is a typesetting system (or "formatting system") designed and mostly written by Donald Knuth[1] and released in 1978. Together with the Metafont language for font description and the Computer Modern family of typefaces, TeX was designed with two main goals in mind: to allow anybody to produce high-quality books using minimal effort, and to provide a system that would give exactly the same results on all computers, at any point in time.[2] TeX is free software, which made it accessible to a wide range of users. wiki.



641: TEX

In 1979, Honeywell Information Systems announced a new programming language for their time-sharing service named TEX, an acronym for the Text Executive text processing system. TEX was a first generation scripting language, developed around the time of AWK and used by Honeywell initially as an in-house system test automation tool. wiki.



642: TIE

Tensilica Instruction Extension refers to the proprietary language that is used to customize Tensilica's Xtensa processor core architecture. wiki.



643: Timber

Timber is a functional programming language descended from O'Haskell, targeted at embedded real-time systems. wiki.



644: TMG

TMG (TransMoGrifier) is a compiler-compiler[1] created by Robert M. McClure and presented in 1968, and implemented by Douglas McIlroy.[2][3][4] TMG ran on systems like OS360 and early Unix.[5] It was used to build EPL, an early version of PL/I.[5] Ken Thompson used TMG in 1970 on PDP-7 as a tool to offer Fortran, but ended up creating the B programming language which was much influenced by BCPL.[2] wiki.



645: Tom

Tom is a programming language[2] particularly well-suited for programming various transformations[3] on tree structures and XML based documents. Tom is a language extension which adds new matching primitives to C and Java[4] as well as support for rewrite rules systems.[5] The rules can be controlled using a strategy[6] language. wiki.



646: TOM

TOM was an object-oriented programming language developed in the 1990s that built on the lessons learned from Objective-C. The main purpose of TOM was to allow for "unplanned reuse" of code via a well-developed extension mechanism. This concept was introduced seemingly by accident in Objective-C and later proved to be of wide use, and was applied aggressively in TOM. wiki.



647: Toi

Toi is an imperative, type-sensitive language that provides the basic functionality of a programming language. The language was designed and developed from the ground-up by Paul Longtine.[1] Written in C, Toi was created with the intent to be an educational experience and serves as a learning tool (or toy, hence the name) for those looking to familiarize themselves with the inner-workings of a programming language.[2] wiki.



648: Topspeed

Clarion is a commercial, proprietary, 4GL, multi-paradigm, programming language and Integrated Development Environment from SoftVelocity used to program database applications. It is compatible with ISAM, SQL and ADO data access methods, reads and writes several flat file desktop database formats including ASCII, CSV, DOS (Binary), FoxPro, Clipper, dBase, and some relational databases via ODBC, MS SQL Server, Sybase SQL Anywhere and Oracle through the use of accelerated native database drivers, and XML, Clarion can be used to output to HTML, XML, plaintext, and PDF, among others. wiki.



649: TPU

DEC Text Processing Utility (or DECTPU)[1][2] was a language developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) for developing text editors. In 1986, DEC developed a new version of EDT written in DECTPU. DECTPU is distributed with OpenVMS. It is designed to be used on a terminal or console, so that it is not necessary to have DECwindows installed to use it. wiki.



650: Trac

TRAC (for Text Reckoning And Compiling) Language is a programming language developed between 1959-1964 by Calvin Mooers and implemented on a PDP-10 in 1964 by L. Peter Deutsch.[1] It was one of three "first languages" recommended by Ted Nelson in Computer Lib. TRAC T64 was used until 1984, when Mooers updated it to TRAC T84.[1] wiki.



651: TTM

TTM is a string oriented, general purpose macro processing programming language developed in 1968 by Steven Caine and E. Kent Gordon at the California Institute of Technology. wiki.



652: T-SQL

Transact-SQL (T-SQL) is Microsoft's and Sybase's proprietary extension to the SQL (Structured Query Language) used to interact with relational databases. T-SQL expands on the SQL standard to include procedural programming, local variables, various support functions for string processing, date processing, mathematics, etc. and changes to the DELETE and UPDATE statements. wiki.



653: Transcript

LiveCode (formerly Revolution and MetaCard[1]) is a cross-platform[2] rapid application development runtime environment inspired by HyperCard. It features the Transcript (formerly MetaTalk) programming language which belongs to the family of xTalk scripting languages like HyperCard's HyperTalk.[3][4] wiki.



654: TTCN

TTCN is a programming language used for testing of communication protocols and web services. A TTCN test suite consists of many test cases written in the TTCN programming language. Until version 2 the language was written in tables and called Tree and Tabular Combined Notation. Reading and editing this language required special TTCN editors. Beginning with version 3 TTCN was renamed to Testing and Test Control Notation. It is now closer to current programming languages and can be edited with traditional editors. TTCN-3 is more flexible than TTCN-2 in that it can be used for protocol testing as well as testing traditional software. wiki.



655: Turing

Turing is a Pascal-like programming language developed in 1982 by Ric Holt and James Cordy, then of University of Toronto, Canada. Turing is a descendant of Euclid, Pascal and SP/k that features a clean syntax and precise machine-independent semantics. wiki.



656: TUTOR

TUTOR (also known as PLATO Author Language) is a programming language developed for use on the PLATO system at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign around 1965. TUTOR was initially designed by Paul Tenczar for use in computer assisted instruction (CAI) and computer managed instruction (CMI) (in computer programs called "lessons") and has many features for that purpose. For example, TUTOR has powerful answer-parsing and answer-judging commands, graphics, and features to simplify handling student records and statistics by instructors. TUTOR's flexibility, in combination with PLATO's computational power (running on what was considered a supercomputer in 1972), also made it suitable for the creation of many non-educational lessonsthat is, gamesincluding flight simulators, war games, dungeon style multiplayer role-playing games, card games, word games, and medical lesson games such as Bugs and Drugs (BND). wiki.



657: TXL

TXL is a special-purpose programming language originally designed by Charles Halpern-Hamu and James Cordy at the University of Toronto in 1985. The acronym "TXL" originally stood for "Turing eXtender Language" after the language's original purpose, the specification and rapid prototyping of variants and extensions of the Turing programming language, but no longer has any meaningful interpretation. wiki.



658: TypeScript

TypeScript is an open-source programming language developed and maintained by Microsoft. It is a strict syntactical superset of JavaScript, and adds optional static typing to the language. wiki.



659: Tynker

Tynker is an educational programming platform aimed at teaching children how to make games and programs. Instead of typing the source code, you visually drag blocks of code and snap them together. The visual design and principles are based on the free Scratch, just like Hopscotch and Snap!. Unlike Scratch, Tynker is not based on proprietary Adobe Flash, but HTML5 and JavaScript, and can be used in the browser without plugins, as well as on tablets and smartphones.[1] Another difference is that Scratch is a free open source project, while Tynker is a commercial product, aimed at selling courses.[2] wiki.



660: Ubercode

Ubercode is a high level programming language designed by Ubercode Software and released in 2005 for Microsoft Windows. Ubercode is influenced by Eiffel and BASIC. It is commercial software and can be tried out for free for 30 days. Ubercode has the following design goals: wiki.



661: UCSD Pascal

UCSD Pascal was a Pascal programming language system that ran on the UCSD p-System, a portable, highly machine-independent operating system. UCSD Pascal was first released in 1978. It was developed at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). wiki.



662: Umple

Umple is a language for both object-oriented programming and modelling with class diagrams and state diagrams. The name Umple is a portmanteau of "UML", "ample" and "programming language", indicating that it is designed to provide ample features to extend programming languages with UML capabilities. wiki.



663: Unicon

Unicon is a programming language designed by American computer scientist Clint Jeffery with collaborators including Shamim Mohamed, Jafar Al Gharaibeh, Robert Parlett and others. Unicon descended from Icon and a preprocessor for Icon called IDOL. Compared with Icon, Unicon offers better access to the operating system as well as support for object-oriented programming. Unicon began life as a merger of three popular Icon extensions: an OO preprocessor named Idol, a POSIX filesystem and networking interface, and an ODBC facility. The name is shorthand for "Unified Extended Dialect of Icon." wiki.



664: Uniface

Uniface is a development and deployment platform for enterprise applications that can run in a large range of runtime environments, including mobile, mainframe, web, Service-oriented architecture (SOA), Windows, Java EE and .NET. Uniface is a model-driven, Rapid Application Development (RAD) environment used to create mission-critical applications. wiki.



665: UNITY

UNITY is a programming language constructed by K. Mani Chandy and Jayadev Misra for their book Parallel Program Design: A Foundation. It is a theoretical language which focuses on what, instead of where, when or how. The language contains no method of flow control, and program statements run in a nondeterministic way until statements cease to cause changes during execution. This allows for programs to run indefinitely, such as auto-pilot or power plant safety systems, as well as programs that would normally terminate (which here converge to a fixed point). wiki.



666: Unix shell

A Unix shell is a command-line interpreter or shell that provides a traditional Unix-like command line user interface. Users direct the operation of the computer by entering commands as text for a command line interpreter to execute, or by creating text scripts of one or more such commands. Users typically interact with a Unix shell using a terminal emulator; however, direct operation via serial hardware connections, or networking session, are common for server systems. All Unix shells provide filename wildcarding, piping, here documents, command substitution, variables and control structures for condition-testing and iteration. wiki.



667: UnrealScript

The Unreal Engine is a game engine developed by Epic Games, first showcased in the 1998 first-person shooter game Unreal. Although primarily developed for first-person shooters, it has been successfully used in a variety of other genres, including stealth, fighting games, MMORPGs, and other RPGs. With its code written in C++, the Unreal Engine features a high degree of portability and is a tool used by many game developers today. It has won several awards, including the Guinness World Records award for "most successful video game engine."[2] wiki.



668: Vala

Vala is an object-oriented programming language with a self-hosting compiler that generates C code and uses the GObject system. wiki.



669: Verilog

Verilog, standardized as IEEE 1364, is a hardware description language (HDL) used to model electronic systems. It is most commonly used in the design and verification of digital circuits at the register-transfer level of abstraction. It is also used in the verification of analog circuits and mixed-signal circuits, as well as in the design of genetic circuits.[1] wiki.



670: Viper

Ethereum is an open-source, public, blockchain-based distributed computing platform and operating system featuring smart contract (scripting) functionality.[3] It supports a modified version of Nakamoto consensus via transaction based state transitions. wiki.



671: Visual Basic

Visual Basic is a third-generation event-driven programming language and integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft for its Component Object Model (COM) programming model first released in 1991 and declared legacy during 2008. Microsoft intended Visual Basic to be relatively easy to learn and use.[1][2] Visual Basic was derived from BASIC and enables the rapid application development (RAD) of graphical user interface (GUI) applications, access to databases using Data Access Objects, Remote Data Objects, or ActiveX Data Objects, and creation of ActiveX controls and objects. wiki.



672: Visual Basic .NET

Visual Basic .NET (VB.NET) is a multi-paradigm, object-oriented programming language, implemented on the .NET Framework. Microsoft launched VB.NET in 2002 as the successor to its original Visual Basic language. Although the ".NET" portion of the name was dropped in 2005, this article uses "Visual Basic [.NET]" to refer to all Visual Basic languages releases since 2002, in order to distinguish between them and the classic Visual Basic. Along with Visual C#, it is one of the two main languages targeting the .NET framework. wiki.



673: Visual DataFlex

DataFlex (formerly known as Visual DataFlex) is a visual tool for developing Windows, web and mobile software applications on one framework-based platform. wiki.



674: Visual DialogScript

Visual DialogScript (VDS) is an interpreted programming language for Microsoft Windows. It can be used to create small, fast programs. VDS has a large number of dialog and graphical elements available to create professional looking programs. VDS programs have access to the Windows API; therefore, it is possible to write applications that can perform the same advanced tasks as other programming languages such as Visual Basic, C++, or Delphi. wiki.



675: Visual Fortran

Fortran (/frtrn/; formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation[2]) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. Originally developed by IBM[3] in the 1950s for scientific and engineering applications, FORTRAN came to dominate this area of programming early on and has been in continuous use for over half a century in computationally intensive areas such as numerical weather prediction, finite element analysis, computational fluid dynamics, computational physics, crystallography and computational chemistry. It is a popular language for high-performance computing[4] and is used for programs that benchmark and rank the world's fastest supercomputers.[5] wiki.



676: Visual FoxPro

Visual FoxPro is a discontinued data-centric, object-oriented, procedural, programming language produced by Microsoft. It was derived from FoxPro (originally known as FoxBASE) which was developed by Fox Software beginning in 1984. Fox Technologies merged with Microsoft in 1992, after which the software acquired further features and the prefix "Visual".[6] FoxPro 2.6 worked on Mac OS, DOS, Windows, and Unix. Visual FoxPro 3.0, the first "Visual" version, reduced platform support to only Mac[7] and Windows, and later versions 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 were Windows-only. The current version of Visual FoxPro is COM-based and Microsoft has stated that they do not intend to create a Microsoft .NET version. wiki.



677: Visual J++

Visual J++ (pronounced "Jay Plus Plus") is Microsoft's discontinued implementation of Java. Syntax, keywords, and grammatical conventions were the same as Java's. Microsoft discontinued support of J++ in January 2004,[1] replacing it to a certain extent with J# and C#. wiki.



678: Visual J#

Visual J++ (pronounced "Jay Plus Plus") is Microsoft's discontinued implementation of Java. Syntax, keywords, and grammatical conventions were the same as Java's. Microsoft discontinued support of J++ in January 2004,[1] replacing it to a certain extent with J# and C#. wiki.



679: Visual LISP

AutoLISP is a dialect of the LISP programming language built specifically for use with the full version of AutoCAD and its derivatives, which include AutoCAD Map 3D, AutoCAD Architecture and AutoCAD Mechanical.[1] Neither the application programming interface nor the interpreter to execute AutoLISP code are included in the AutoCAD LT product line.[2] wiki.



680: Visual Objects

Visual Objects is an object-oriented computer programming language that is used to create computer programs that operate primarily under Windows. Although it can be used as a general-purpose programming tool, it is almost exclusively used to create database programs. wiki.



681: Visual Prolog

Visual Prolog, also formerly known as PDC Prolog and Turbo Prolog, is a strongly typed object-oriented extension of Prolog. As Turbo Prolog, it was marketed by Borland but it is now developed and marketed by the Danish firm Prolog Development Center (PDC) that originally developed it. Visual Prolog can build Microsoft Windows GUI-applications, console applications, DLLs (dynamic link libraries), and CGI-programs. It can also link to COM components and to databases by means of ODBC. wiki.



682: VSXu

VSXu (VSX Ultra) is an OpenGL-based (hardware-accelerated), modular programming environment with its main purpose to visualize music/audio data and create 3D effects in real-time.[1] Available for Windows and GNU/Linux.[2] It is currently released as free software under terms of the GNU General Public License v2 and maintained by Vovoid Media Technologies AB.[3] VSXu is built on a modular plug-in-based architecture so anyone can extend it and or make visualization presets ("visuals" or "states").[4] wiki.



683: vvvv

vvvv (German pronunciation: [fafi ] = "v4") is a general purpose toolkit with a special focus on real-time video synthesis and programming large media environments with physical interfaces, real-time motion graphics, audio and video.[1] vvvv uses a dataflow approach and a visual programming interface for rapid prototyping and developing. Applications written in vvvv are commonly called patches. Patches consist of a network of nodes. Patches can be created, edited and tested while they are running.[2] Patches are stored on the disk in standard XML format. vvvv is written in Borland Delphi, plugins can be developed in the .NET Framework in C#. wiki.



684: WATFIV, WATFOR

WATFIV, or WATerloo FORTRAN IV, developed at the University of Waterloo, Canada is an implementation of the Fortran computer programming language. It is the successor of WATFOR. wiki.



685: WebDNA

WebDNA is a server-side scripting, interpreted language with an embedded database system, specifically designed for the World Wide Web. Its primary use is in creating database-driven dynamic web page applications. Released in 1995, the name was registered as a trademark in 1998.[1] WebDNA is currently maintained by WebDNA Software Corporation. wiki.



686: WebQL

WebQL Home Page http://www.ql2.com/products-services/ql2-webql/ wiki.



687: Whiley

Whiley is a general purpose multi-paradigm, compiled language developed by David Pearce.[1] The language combines features from the Functional and Imperative paradigms, is statically typed and supports formal specification through function preconditions, postconditions and loop invariants. The language is also notable for the use of flow-sensitive typing, also known as "flow typing". wiki.



688: Winbatch

Winbatch is a Microsoft Windows scripting language originally developed by Wilson WindowWare and currently supported, maintained and enhanced by Island Lake Consulting LLC. Its environment includes an interpreter and a code editor along with a dialog designer and optional compiler to create self-contained executables. wiki.



689: Wolfram Language

The Wolfram Language is a general multi-paradigm programming language[5] developed by Wolfram Research and is the programming language of the mathematical symbolic computation program Mathematica[6] and the Wolfram Programming Cloud. It emphasizes symbolic computation, functional programming, and rule-based programming[7] and can employ arbitrary structures and data.[7] wiki.



690: Wyvern

Wyvern is a computer programming language created by Jonathan Aldrich and Alex Potanin for the development of web and mobile applications with security and assurance being number one priority. Wyvern supports object capabilities, it is structurally typed, and aims to make secure way of programming *easier* than insecure - as described in the Wyvern Manifesto. One of the early available features that make Wyvern special is a way to safely use multiple programming languages within the same program so programmers can use the language most appropriate for each function while at the same time increasing the program's security. wiki.



691: X++

Microsoft Dynamics AX is one of Microsoft's enterprise resource planning software products. It is part of the Microsoft Dynamics family. wiki.



692: X10

X10 is a programming language being developed by IBM at the Thomas J. Watson Research Center as part of the Productive, Easy-to-use, Reliable Computing System (PERCS) project funded by DARPA's High Productivity Computing Systems (HPCS) program. Its primary authors are Kemal Ebciolu, Vijay Saraswat, Saravanan Arumugam, and Vivek Sarkar.[1] wiki.



693: XBL

XBL (XML Binding Language) is an XML-based markup language used to declare the behavior and look of XUL-widgets and XML elements. Development of the XBL specification was abandoned by the W3C in 2012. wiki.



694: XC

In computers, XC is a programming language for real-time embedded parallel processors, targeted at the XMOS XCore processor architecture.[1] wiki.



695: XMOS architecture

The XCore Architecture is a 32-bit RISC microprocessor architecture designed by XMOS. The architecture is designed to be used in multi-core processors for embedded systems. Each XCore executes up to eight concurrent threads, each thread having its own register set, and the architecture directly supports inter-thread and inter-core communication and various forms of thread scheduling. wiki.



696: xHarbour

xHarbour is a free multi-platform extended Clipper compiler, offering multiple graphic terminals (GTs), including console drivers, GUIs, and hybrid console/GUIs. xHarbour is backward-compatible with Clipper and supports many language syntax extensions, greatly extended run-time libraries, and extensive third party support. wiki.



697: XL

XL stands for eXtensible Language. It is the first and so far the only computer programming language designed to support concept programming.[1] wiki.



698: Xojo

The Xojo programming environment is developed and commercially marketed by Xojo, Inc. of Austin, Texas for software development targeting macOS, Microsoft Windows, Linux, iOS, the Web and Raspberry Pi. Xojo uses a proprietary object-oriented BASIC dialect, also known as Xojo.[1][2][3] wiki.



699: XOTcl

XOTcl is an object-oriented extension for the Tool Command Language created by Gustaf Neumann and Uwe Zdun. It is a derivative of MIT OTcl. XOTcl is based on a dynamic object system with metaclasses which as influenced by CLOS. Class and method definitions are completely dynamic. XOTcl provides language support for design patterns via filters and decorator mixins. wiki.



700: XPL

XPL is a programming language based on PL/I, a portable one-pass compiler written in its own language, and a parser generator tool for easily implementing similar compilers for other languages. XPL was designed in 1967 as a way to teach compiler design principles and as starting point for students to build compilers for their own languages. wiki.



701: XPL0

XPL0 is a computer programming language that is essentially a cross between Pascal and C. It was created in 1976 by Peter J. R. Boyle who wanted a high-level language for his microcomputer and wanted something more sophisticated than BASIC, which was the dominant language for personal computers at the time. wiki.



702: XQuery

XQuery (XML Query) is a query and functional programming language that queries and transforms collections of structured and unstructured data, usually in the form of XML, text and with vendor-specific extensions for other data formats (JSON, binary, etc.). The language is developed by the XML Query working group of the W3C. The work is closely coordinated with the development of XSLT by the XSL Working Group; the two groups share responsibility for XPath, which is a subset of XQuery. wiki.



703: XSB

XSB is the name of a dialect of the Prolog programming language and its implementation developed at Stony Brook University in collaboration with the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, the New University of Lisbon, Uppsala University and software vendor XSB, Inc. wiki.



704: XSharp

The XSharp compiler is a compiler intended to support multiple dialects in the xBase programming language family. The project is intended as an opensource community effort, but is at the moment still partly closed source. wiki.



705: XSLT

XSLT (Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations) is a language for transforming XML documents into other XML documents,[1] or other formats such as HTML for web pages, plain text or XSL Formatting Objects, which may subsequently be converted to other formats, such as PDF, PostScript and PNG.[2] XSLT 1.0 is widely supported in modern web browsers [3]. wiki.



706: XPath

XPath (XML Path Language) is a query language for selecting nodes from an XML document. In addition, XPath may be used to compute values (e.g., strings, numbers, or Boolean values) from the content of an XML document. XPath was defined by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).[1] wiki.



707: Xtend

Xtend is a general-purpose high-level programming language for the Java Virtual Machine. Syntactically and semantically Xtend has its roots in the Java programming language but focuses on a more concise syntax and some additional functionality such as type inference, extension methods, and operator overloading. Being primarily an object-oriented language, it also integrates features known from functional programming, e.g. lambda expressions. Xtend is statically typed and uses Java's type system without modifications. It is compiled to Java code and thereby seamlessly integrates with all existing Java libraries. wiki.



708: Yorick

Yorick is an interpreted programming language designed for numerics, graph plotting, and steering large scientific simulation codes. It is quite fast due to array syntax, and extensible via C or Fortran routines. It was created in 1996 by David H. Munro of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. wiki.



709: YQL

Yahoo! Query Language (YQL) is an SQL-like query language created by Yahoo! as part of their Developer Network. YQL is designed to retrieve and manipulate data from APIs through a single Web interface, thus allowing mashups that enable developers to create their own applications.[1] wiki.



710: Yoix

In computer programming, Yoix is a high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language. The Yoix interpreter is implemented using standard Java technology without any add-on packages and requires only a Sun-compliant JVM to operate.[citation needed] Initially developed by AT&T Labs researchers for internal use, it has been available as free and open source software since late 2000. wiki.



711: Z

The Z notation /zd/ is a formal specification language used for describing and modelling computing systems. It is targeted at the clear specification of computer programs and computer-based systems in general. wiki.



712: Z notation

The Z notation /zd/ is a formal specification language used for describing and modelling computing systems. It is targeted at the clear specification of computer programs and computer-based systems in general. wiki.



713: Zap

Basic Assembly Language (BAL) is the commonly used term for a low-level programming language used on IBM System/360 and successor mainframes. Originally "Basic Assembly Language" applied only to an extremely restricted dialect designed to run under control of IBM Basic Programming Support (BPS/360) on systems with only 8KB of main memory, and only a card reader, a card punch, and a printer for input/output thus the word "Basic". However, the full name and the initialism "BAL" almost immediately attached themselves in popular use to all assembly-language dialects on the System/360 and its descendants. BAL for BPS/360 was introduced with the System/360 in 1964. wiki.



714: Zebra, ZPL, ZPL2

Zebra Programming Language (ZPL and ZPL II) is a page description language from Zebra Technologies. It is used primarily for labeling applications. The original ZPL was advanced to ZPL II, but a full compatibility with the older version is not given. Meanwhile, ZPL II is emulated by many label printers of various producers. wiki.



715: Zeno

Zeno (after pre-Socratic Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea) is an imperative procedural programming language designed to be easy to learn and user friendly. Zeno is generic in the sense that it contains most of the essential elements used in other languages to develop real applications. wiki.



716: ZetaLisp

Lisp Machine Lisp is a dialect of the Lisp programming language. A direct descendant of Maclisp, it was initially developed in the mid to late 1970s as the systems programming language for the MIT Lisp machines. Lisp Machine Lisp was also the Lisp dialect with the most influence on the design of Common Lisp. wiki.



717: ZOPL

ZOPL is a programming language created by Geac Computer Corporation in the early 1970s for use on their mainframe computer systems used in libraries and banking institutions. It had similarities to C and Pascal. wiki.



718: Zsh

The Z shell (Zsh) is a Unix shell that can be used as an interactive login shell and as a powerful command interpreter for shell scripting. Zsh is an extended Bourne shell with a large number of improvements, including some features of Bash, ksh, and tcsh. wiki.



719: ZPL

ZPL (short for Z-level Programming Language) is an array programming language designed to replace C and C++ programming languages in engineering and scientific applications.[2] Because its design goal was to obtain cross-platform high performance, ZPL programs run fast on both sequential and parallel computers. Highly-parallel ZPL programs are simple and easy to write because it exclusively uses implicit parallelism. wiki.



720: Z++

Z++ (pronounced zee plus plus) was an object-oriented extension to the Z specification language. wiki.



Reference: Wikipedia


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Om Prakash Mahato

Full stack developer, author, founder of TechConductor.


1 Comments:

  • commenter image
    Om
    2018-06-02
    Haven't you been amazed it's huge 😮 share with your friends.

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